Penningby Castle is one of the most well-preserved castles from the early Vasa era. Penningby Manor is first mentioned in the 1330s. To the northeast is an overgrown ruin castle with a moat, which may be the remains of a predecessor to the castle. Its earliest owners included Lord Tord Bonde, burgrave of Raasepori and margrave of Viipuri castles. In late 15th century, a fortress was built by its owners, initiated by Lady Birgitta Tordsdotter Bonde, daughter of Tord Karlsson (Bonde), Lord High Constable of Sweden. The medieval castle was a so-called twin house unusual in its placement near the sea coast.
The immense tower was erected just before 1550s under Lord Lars Turesson, Tre Rosor. In his time, the eastern façade got a new entrance. Later, the sea tower got its round salon, arguably the most beautiful room in the castle.
In 1805 countess Maria Juliana von Rosen had the castle garden recreated in a so-called English style. In 1831, a fire destroyed the interiors of the castle, but parts of it, for example the ceiling, were restored, and the tower was modified. A section of the medieval walls are yet left. A restoration was carried out from 1951 to 1953. Penningby castle was declared a national cultural heritage (byggnadsminne) in 1980. Today the castle is not inhabited, but visitors may have access to it in summer season.
Olof Persson Stille, one of the early settlers in New Sweden, was employed on the Penningby Manor. In 1641 Olof Stillé, a millwright by trade, was the original owner of the area which is today Eddystone, Pennsylvania. Stillé was one of the four commissaries or magistrates appointed to administer justice among local inhabitants, and thus became a judge of the first court on the banks of the Delaware River.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.