Penningby Castle is one of the most well-preserved castles from the early Vasa era. Penningby Manor is first mentioned in the 1330s. To the northeast is an overgrown ruin castle with a moat, which may be the remains of a predecessor to the castle. Its earliest owners included Lord Tord Bonde, burgrave of Raasepori and margrave of Viipuri castles. In late 15th century, a fortress was built by its owners, initiated by Lady Birgitta Tordsdotter Bonde, daughter of Tord Karlsson (Bonde), Lord High Constable of Sweden. The medieval castle was a so-called twin house unusual in its placement near the sea coast.
The immense tower was erected just before 1550s under Lord Lars Turesson, Tre Rosor. In his time, the eastern façade got a new entrance. Later, the sea tower got its round salon, arguably the most beautiful room in the castle.
In 1805 countess Maria Juliana von Rosen had the castle garden recreated in a so-called English style. In 1831, a fire destroyed the interiors of the castle, but parts of it, for example the ceiling, were restored, and the tower was modified. A section of the medieval walls are yet left. A restoration was carried out from 1951 to 1953. Penningby castle was declared a national cultural heritage (byggnadsminne) in 1980. Today the castle is not inhabited, but visitors may have access to it in summer season.
Olof Persson Stille, one of the early settlers in New Sweden, was employed on the Penningby Manor. In 1641 Olof Stillé, a millwright by trade, was the original owner of the area which is today Eddystone, Pennsylvania. Stillé was one of the four commissaries or magistrates appointed to administer justice among local inhabitants, and thus became a judge of the first court on the banks of the Delaware River.References:
Castel del Monte, located in the municipality of Andria, rises on a rocky hill dominating the surrounding countryside of the Murgia region. A unique piece of medieval architecture, it was completed in 1240. The castle’s location, its perfect octagonal shape, as well as the mathematical and astronomical precision of its layout all reflect the broad education and cultural vision of its founder, Emperor Frederick II.
As a leader of modern humanism, the Germanic Emperor brought scholars together in his court from throughout the Mediterranean, combining Eastern and Western traditions. The castle’s unique design, an octagonal plan with octagonal towers at each angle, represents a search for perfection. Interior features reflect Eastern influences, such as the innovative hydraulic installation used by Frederick II for bathing in accord to the typical Arabic customs.
The site is of outstanding universal value in its formal perfection and its harmonious blending of cultural elements from northern Europe, the Muslim world and classical antiquity. Castel del Monte is a unique masterpiece of medieval architecture, reflecting the humanist ideas of its founder, Frederick II of Hohenstaufen.