Engelsholm Castle, overlooking Engelsholm Lake was originally a manor house from to the 15th century. Little is known about Engelsholm's earliest history. The estate was acquired from the crown by Timme Nielsen Rosenkrantz in 1452. It was owned by the Brahe family between 1590 and 1725. Knud Brahe, the brother of famous astronomer Tycho Brahe, constructed a new main building, in two storeys and with four corner towers, in 1592-93. The identity of the architect remains unclear but it may have been Hans van Steenwinckel the Elder or Hercules von Oberberg.
This Renaissance castle was adapted to the Baroque style for Gerhard de Lichtenberg with the assistance of Nicolaus Hinrich Rieman. By 1740 it was a white-washed building with a black-glazed tile roof and onion domes topping the four towers.
Engelsholm's most famous former owner is Admiral Niels Juel who owned the estate from 1784 until 1786. Most of the land was sold off in lots in 1931 and the adjacent farm buildings were demolished.
Engelsholm was purchased and turned into a folk high school in 1939, from 1952 run as a self-owning institution. Housing for students and faculty has later been built next to the castle to a design by Jens Malling Pedersen (b. 1920). The school specializes in artistic courses, combomg both music and visual arts.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.