Scalloway Castle was built from 1599 by Patrick Stewart, 2nd Earl of Orkney to tighten his grip on Shetland. The Stewart family, as Earls of Orkney and Shetland, had a dramatic impact on both groups of islands. Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of Orkney was the illegitimate son of James V of Scotland and one of his mistresses, Euphemia Elphinstone. He was born in 1533, and in 1564 he was given the recreated Earldom of Orkney and Shetland and the position of the Sheriff of Orkney.Robert's interest lay mainly in the richer farmlands of Orkney and though he did build the Old House of Sumburgh, he left much of the day to day running of Shetland to his half brother Laurence Bruce, who was appointed Sheriff of Shetland.
Robert died in 1593 in the Bishop's Palace, Kirkwall, largely unmourned by a population he had systematically oppressed. He was succeeded by his son, Earl Patrick, who took a much more direct interest in Shetland. Patrick also carried on the family traditions of corruption and brutality that had characterised his father's dealings on Orkney, and those of Laurence Bruce on Shetland. Patrick's interest in Shetland caused Laurence Bruce to fear for his position, and he built Muness Castle on Unst in 1598 as a bolt-hole. His fears were to prove well founded. The following year Earl Patrick confirmed his interest in Shetland by starting to build Scalloway Castle.
Scalloway Castle was built under the direction of Andrew Crawford, the Earl's master of works, who had also built Muness Castle for Laurence Bruce. And given the similarities in style and sophistication, he also seems to have been the hand behind the later and grander Earl's Palace built in Kirkwall by Earl Patrick in 1607.Patrick's growing collection of enemies eventually became just too numerous and too powerful. He was in prison in Edinburgh when his son Robert rose in revolt in 1614 and seized Kirkwall. It took a royal army under the Earl of Caithness and a siege (during which Kirkwall Castle was destroyed and St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall, was threatened) to displace him, and both Patrick and his son Robert were later executed. It is an oft-quoted comment on Patrick's ignorance that his execution had to be delayed to give him time to learn the Lord's Prayer.
After Patrick's demise, Scalloway Castle remained the administrative centre for Shetland and it was still in good shape when used as a barracks for Oliver Cromwell's troops in the 1650s. By 1700 there were reports that the roof was leaking, and the shift of Shetland's capital to Lerwick a few years later confirmed Scalloway Castle's decline.
The last straw was the removal in 1754 of much of the stone from the lesser buildings that originally surrounded the tower house to build a nearby mansion. In 1908 the castle was placed in the care of the State, and it is now looked after by Historic Scotland.
The tower house itself has been extensively restored over the past century, but nothing visible remains of the surrounding walls and buildings. The latter half of the 1900s saw the point on which the tower house stands gradually surrounded by reclaimed land and harbour developments.Before entering, make sure you take note of the corbelling at every corner of the tower house, a trademark of Andrew Crawford.Internally the ground floor reveals the vaulted store, used as an exhibition area, and kitchen, complete with well. Plus a porter's lodge that could double as a prison.
Most visitors to the castle during its active life would have headed directly up the main staircase on entering the tower. This is a grand affair of wide steps and square landings and leads directly up to the hall on the first floor. Today the hall is open to the elements. There were originally two more floors above it, providing secure accommodation for the castle's most important residents.
Spiral stairs from opposing corners of the main hall originally led up to these higher floors. One is long gone. The other still provides access to rooms in the south wing of the castle, one of which is open to visitors. This gives a higher level view of the great hall, and a sense of just how grand a place this would have been in its all too brief heyday.References:
The famous Italian Medici family have given two queens to France: Catherine, the spouse of Henry II, and Marie, widow of Henry IV, who built the current Luxembourg palace. Maria di Medici had never been happy at the Louvre, still semi-medieval, where the fickle king, did not hesitate to receive his mistresses. The death of Henry IV, assassinated in 1610, left the way open for Marie's project. When she became regent, she was able to give special attention to the construction of an imposing modern residence that would be reminiscent of the Palazzo Pitti and the Boboli Gardens in Florence, where she grew up. The development of the 25-hectare park, which was to serve as a jewel-case for the palace, began immediately.
The architect, Salomon de Brosse, began the work in 1615. Only 16 years later was the palace was completed. Palace of Luxembourg affords a transition between the Renaissance and the Classical period.
In 1750, the Director of the King's Buildings installed in the wing the first public art-gallery in France, in which French and foreign canvases of the royal collections are shown. The Count of Provence and future Louis XVIII, who was living in Petit Luxembourg, had this gallery closed in 1780: leaving to emigrate, he fled from the palace in June 1791.
During the French Revolution the palace was first abandoned and then moved as a national prison. After that it was the seat of the French Directory, and in 1799, the home of the Sénat conservateur and the first residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of the French Republic. The old apartments of Maria di Medici were altered. The floor, which the 80 senators only occupied in 1804, was built in the middle of the present Conference Hall.
Beginning in 1835 the architect Alphonse de Gisors added a new garden wing parallel to the old corps de logis, replicating the look of the original 17th-century facade so precisely that it is difficult to distinguish at first glance the old from the new. The new senate chamber was located in what would have been the courtyard area in-between.
The new wing included a library (bibliothèque) with a cycle of paintings (1845–1847) by Eugène Delacroix. In the 1850s, at the request of Emperor Napoleon III, Gisors created the highly decorated Salle des Conférences, which influenced the nature of subsequent official interiors of the Second Empire, including those of the Palais Garnier.
During the German occupation of Paris (1940–1944), Hermann Göring took over the palace as the headquarters of the Luftwaffe in France, taking for himself a sumptuous suite of rooms to accommodate his visits to the French capital. Since 1958 the Luxembourg palace has been the seat of the French Senate of the Fifth Republic.