William I built the Walferdange Castle as a stud farm for breeding horses between 1824 and 1828. His son, William II, converted it into a royal residence where he stayed when visiting Luxembourg. It was however his son Prince Henry and his wife Amalia who extended the castle and its gardens while they lived there from 1853. Prince Henry, who was governor of Luxembourg, was well liked, especially in Walferdange where he distributed gifts to the children each Christmas. After his death in 1879, the castle lay empty until Grand Duke Adolphe adopted it as his summer residence in 1905, completely refurbishing the castle and its park. During the 20th century, the castle was used successively as a hospital, a teacher training college, an army barracks for the American and then the Luxembourg army and a pedagocical institute before the University of Luxembourg opened its Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education there in 2003.

Today the castle is one of the campuses of the University of Luxembourg, housing the Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education.



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Founded: 1824
Category: Castles and fortifications in Luxembourg

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Roman Walls of Lugo

Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.

Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.

The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.

Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.

Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.

The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.