In 1583 the Spanish took the town of Steenbergen situated just south of the current Willemstad. According to William I of Orange'this formed a threat for the rest of the Netherlands and he decided to fortify the village of Ruigenhil. William came into possession of the town after the new marquis took sides with the Spanish in 1567 and was discharged of his possession. As a dispensation for all the costs of the war William was declared the new marquis by the Dutch state.
The position of Ruigenhil was a very strategic one; right on the border between the southern and northern Netherlands along one of the most important Dutch rivers, the Maas. Abraham Andriesz (an prolific military engineer in the Netherlands at that time) designed the fortications in 1583.
In 1584, the same year William I of Orange died, the city was renamed Willemstad in his honour. In 1609 a twelve year long truce was signed between Spain and the Netherlands. As a consequence of this the discharge of the old marquis in 1567 was declared illegal and the lands had to be returned. Willemstad remained in the hands of Maurits (William's son) because William fortified the town (according to the treaty the parties had the right to keep the towns they fortified). From that time on Willemstad has always been an estate of the crown, giving it special rights and a certain amount of independence. The fortifications have changed over the years in accordance with updated fortification theories and the overall form of the current fortress dates from the 1680s.
The fortifications were designed according to the Old Dutch System, only here the flanks of the bastions'are not perpendicular to the curtain walls but have a retreated curved shape (the use of these arrow-headed bastions'suggests an Italian influence) and are quite short. In later years some of these flanks were modified to make them perpendicular to the curtain wall. Apart from the walls facing the sea, which were revetted in brick, all the ramparts were unrevetted earthworks.
The seaward front of the town consists of two bastions with water in front of them. Between this water and the river (which in the past was part of the sea) there is a glacis, which prevented ships from coming too close to the walls and gave extra protection against enemy fire. A small canal connects the harbour inside the city with the river. The water in the ditch'is cut of from the river by a dam.
In later centuries buildings like powder magazines, bombshelters and, in WW II, blockhouses have been added. These mainly 19th century later additions to the fortress are quite extensive and very well preserved.
The fortress officially lost its military status in 1926. The population of Willemstad asked for the preservation of the fortifications and today the town and its surroundings are a monument. According to me the beauty of this fortress lies in two things: the waterworks with the harbour and the surrounding lands. The harbour is still right near the water and is used intensively, this also adds to the historic atmosphere.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.