The water fortress of Koluvere was established in the 13th century by the bishop’s vassal Lode. The tower fortress, convention hall and cannon tower were built later. This place has been a battlefield both during St. George’s Night uprising as well as during the Livonian war. In 1439 it became one of residences of Saare-Lääne bishop. In the 17th century the fortress was turned into a manor ensemble. In 1771 the empress of Russia – Catherine II – bought it and gave it to her lover – Prince Grigori Orlov. From that time and until 1917 the castle was used by the Russian czar’s family. Later on the building has been used as a boys’ educational establishment and as a nursing home.
At present the castle is in private ownership and being renovated. It is open in advance bookings only.
Three great Soviet memorials were erected in Berlin after the war, which not only serve as memorials, but also as war cemeteries. The facility in the Treptower Park is the central memorial and with 100,000 square metres the largest of its kind in Germany. The facility, also serving as cemetery for 5,000 Soviet solders, was built between 1946 and 1948 on the site of a large playing and sports field. Memorial slabs and frescos depicting the course of the war are arranged in long tiers of straight lines. The imposing figure on top of the mausoleum shows a soldier carrying a rescued German child. It is a memorial for the app. 80,000 Red Army soldiers killed during the conquest of Berlin in World War II. 40,000 cubic metres of granite were used in the construction. Aside from the war cemetery in Niederschönhausen, the facility is the largest Soviet war cemetery in Germany as well as the largest anti-fascist memorial in Western Europe.