Dunstaffnage Castle is one of the oldest stone castles in Scotland. It guards the seaward approach from the Firth of Lorn to the Pass of Brander – and thereby the heart of Scotland. The castle was built around 1220, probably by Duncan MacDougall, son of Dubhgall, Lord of Lorn, and grandson of the great Somerled ‘King of the Isles’. These were stirring times in Argyll, because of the remarkable struggle between Scotland and Norway for control over the Hebrides.
The acquisition of the region by Scotland in 1266 did not see the end of warring; far from it. Mighty Dunstaffnage saw action during the Wars of Independence (1296–1356), and was famously besieged by King Robert Bruce in 1308, after his victory over the MacDougalls at the Pass of Brander, overlooking Loch Awe. Thereafter, Dunstaffnage remained a royal castle until it passed to the Campbells, earls of Argyll, in the 1460s. From then until the last Jacobite Rising in 1745–6, Dunstaffnage’s story is inextricably interlinked with the incessant struggles by the Crown and the Campbells to control their unruly western subjects.
In 1164, Earl Somerled was killed fighting the Scots. His eldest son, Dubhgall, became the next ‘King of the Isles’. Judging by the architecture, Dunstaffnage was built by Dubhgall’s son, Duncan, around 1220. (Dubhgall also founded the priory at Ardchattan, beside Loch Etive just six miles – 10km – east of Dunstaffnage.) His new stronghold consisted of a formidable curtain wall of stone, behind which sheltered the residential and service buildings. This brute mass of masonry still overawes visitors today. It had few openings in it, just some narrow vertical arrow slits.
Dubhgall’s son, Ewen, probably added the three projecting round towers, both to flaunt his power and to improve the castle’s defences. The gatehouse tower was later altered, but the other two stand much as built. Ewen’s great hall in the courtyard also partly survives.
Late in 1746, Dunstaffnage welcomed one of its more famous guests, Flora MacDonald. This gentle-mannered lady was visiting her brother in South Uist when she met Bonnie Prince Charlie, then fleeing from the Redcoats following his defeat at Culloden in April. Flora agreed to help him escape, and dressed him up as her serving-girl, ‘Betty Burke’. They crossed to Skye, from where the prince made his escape. Flora, however, was arrested and brought to Dunstaffnage. She remained there but a few days before being escorted to the Tower of London. She was released in the following year.
A ruined 13th century chapel lies around 150 metres to the south-west of the castle. This was also built by Duncan MacDougall of Lorn, as a private chapel, and features detailed stonework of outstanding quality. The chapel is 20 by 6 metres, and formerly had a timber roof. The lancet windows carry dog-tooth carving, and have fine wide-splayed arches internally. The chapel was already ruinous in 1740, when a burial aisle was built on to the east end, to serve as a resting place for the Captains of Dunstaffnage and their families.References:
Heraclea Lyncestis was an ancient Greek city in Macedon, ruled later by the Romans. It was founded by Philip II of Macedon in the middle of the 4th century BC. The city was named in honor of the mythological hero Heracles. The name Lynkestis originates from the name of the ancient kingdom, conquered by Philip, where the city was built.
Heraclea was a strategically important town during the Hellenistic period, as it was at the edge of Macedon"s border with Epirus to the west and Paeonia to the north, until the middle of the 2nd century BC, when the Romans conquered Macedon and destroyed its political power. The main Roman road in the area, Via Egnatia went through Heraclea, and Heraclea was an important stop. The prosperity of the city was maintained mainly due to this road.
The Roman emperor Hadrian built a theatre in the center of the town, on a hill, when many buildings in the Roman province of Macedonia were being restored. It began being used during the reign of Antoninus Pius. Inside the theatre there were three animal cages and in the western part a tunnel. The theatre went out of use during the late 4th century AD, when gladiator fights in the Roman Empire were banned, due to the spread of Christianity, the formulation of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the abandonment of, what was then perceived as, pagan rituals and entertainment.
In the early Byzantine period (4th to 6th centuries AD) Heraclea was an important episcopal centre. A small and a great basilica, the bishop"s residence, and a funerary basilica and the necropolis are some of the remains of this period. Three naves in the Great Basilica are covered with mosaics of very rich floral and figurative iconography; these well preserved mosaics are often regarded as fine examples of the early Christian art period.
The city was sacked by Ostrogoth/Visigoth forces, commanded by Theodoric the Great in 472 AD and again in 479 AD. It was restored in the late 5th and early 6th century. When an earthquake struck in 518 AD, the inhabitants of Heraclea gradually abandoned the city. Subsequently, at the eve of the 7th century, the Dragovites, a Slavic tribe pushed down from the north by the Avars, settled in the area. The last coin issue dates from ca. 585, which suggests that the city was finally captured by the Slavs. As result, in place of the deserted city theatre several huts were built.
The Episcopacy Residence was excavated between 1970 and 1975. The western part was discovered first and the southern side is near the town wall. The luxury rooms are located in the eastern part. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th rooms all have mosaic floors. Between the 3rd and 4th rooms there is a hole that led to the eastern entrance of the residence. The hole was purposefully created between the 4th and 6th century.