Beuerberg Abbey, dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul, was founded in about 1120 by Count Otto of Eurasburg; the church was dedicated in 1127. It was damaged by fire in 1294 and again in 1330, when the library and archives were largely destroyed. It was a small house for most of the Middle Ages, but gained in numbers during the reforms originating from the monastery at Indersdorf of the mid 15th century. It suffered a collapse during the late 15th century and the first half of the 16th century, after which it experienced something of a revival.
The abbey was sacked during the Thirty Years' War, but was rebuilt as early as the 1630s in the Baroque style by either Isaak Paader or Hans Krumpper. It became a part of the Lateran Congregation in 1710, when the prior was elevated to the rank of abbot, and more new building took place, starting in 1729. Thereafter it was a centre for scholarship and historical study. It was dissolved in 1803 in the course of the secularisation of Bavaria.
The last abbot, Paul Hupfauer, chief librarian of the Electors of Bavaria, was appointed Library Commissioner in 1802 and during secularisation secured the transfer of many hundreds of books and manuscripts to the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Bavarian State Library) and to Munich University library. The abbey church became the parish church.
In 1835 the Visitandines, known also as the Salesian Sisters, from the Visitandine house at Dietramszell, acquired and re-settled the premises. Between 1846 and 1938 they ran a girls' school and a home for nursing mothers, and afterwards an old people's convalescent home.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.