Count Eberhard II and his wife Adelheit founded Geisenfeld Abbey in 1030 after their three children had died leaving no descendants. It replaced a monastery in today's Engelbrechtsmünster that had been destroyed around 955 AD by the Hungarians. The founders gave the abbey a lavish endowment. Instead of monks, as before, the Abbey was for use by nuns of the Order of Saint Benedict from noble families. It accommodated about 50 nuns. The first abbess was the sister of Count Eberhard II, Gerbirgis.
The abbey complex was designed by Benedictines from St. Emmeram's Abbey in Regensburg, who started construction in 1030 in a new location, higher up and further from the Ilm river. The foundations were rock, the ground floor brick and the upper floor was half-timbered. A round chapel in the late Romanesque style has survived from the original abbey. The abbey church was built beside the old parish church, which was dedicated to Saint Emmeram of Regensburg. Both stood side by side at the present churchyard. The abbey church has a picture of the Count and his family handing over their possessions to the Virgin Mary, and contains the grave of the count. The painting dates from 1770.
At one time Geisenfeld Abbey was one of the largest and richest convents in Bavaria. The abbey owned large parts of Gaimersheim near Ingolstadt and the village of Sandsbach, administered by two provosts subordinate to the abbey's provost. The inhabitants of the monastic lands had to pay tithes to the abbey and were subject to the monastic provost's court, apart from serious crimes. The abbess also had the right to appoint ministers to the parishes of Gaimersheim and Sandsbach. The nuns provided education to the people of their lands. They did not always insist on full payment of tithes, and sometimes waived them altogether.
In 1131 the nuns founded a brewery near today's Schloss Herrngiersdorf to supply to supply beer to their extensive possessions in the area. It was able to deliver 20,000 litres of beer annually. In 1501 the building located at the top of Mühlberg (Mill hill) included a brewery, maltings, mill and blacksmith. Some traces of this building remain today. The abbey also had a sawmill, bakery, pharmacy and workshops for handicrafts.
In 1483 the monasteries were reformed. The Abbess Helene Prunner was replaced by Barbara Snäkler from the convent of Bergen, Neuburg. Between 1701 and 1712 the monastery was reconstructed. The redesigned abbey church was consecrated in 1730. As late as 1752 the abbey still held 189 estates in 36 communities.
The abbey was dissolved on 18 March 1803 during the Bavarian secularization program. At that time there were 29 nuns and 21 lay sisters led by the abbess Amanda Donaubauer (1794–1803) The abbey was already in financial difficulties due to the costs of war and construction. The abbey's church became the parish church, dedicated to the Assumption of Mary. In 1805 the former parish church was deconsecrated and converted for other use. It was later demolished.
There was an attempt to revive the monastic tradition in 1921–22, but it failed. The former abbey was occupied by a district court. A wing of the former abbey has been preserved. The spacious baroque building still dominates Geisenfeld. The 54 metres church tower with its bulb-shaped dome is a conspicuous landmark.References:
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.