Marianne of Orange-Nassau, Princess of the Netherlands, daughter of King William I of the Netherlands and his first wife Friederike Luise Wilhelmine of Prussia, visits for the first time Kamieniec Zabkowicki, which was inherited after her mother. After deciding to build summer residence on its premises, the same year architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel prepares the first draft of the palace. He also involved a young, talented Ferdinand Martius, who is completely absorbed with work on the construction of the palace.
The construction of the building begins in the spring of this year. The works are led by Ferdinand Martius. Karl Schinkel oversees them from Berlin. The walls of the ground floor, all pillars and columns in the chambers and part of the wall surrounding the building are ready in autumn.
Construction of the palace is suspended as a result of divorce between Marianne and Albert. Because of the fact, that the divorce was conducted in an atmosphere of scandal, which was Marianne’s affair with stableman Johannes van Rossum, she was forbidden to stay in Prussia for longer than 24 hours, with a mandatory report at the police station at each entry and exit. She was also imposed with a penalty of infamy.
Marianne visits Kamieniec and orders to resume the works. She passes the palace to her son Frederick Wilhelm Albert. She buys a property in Bila Voda, 12 kilometers away from Kamieniec, so she can visit the palace and supervise the work as often as possible.
Construction of the fourth floor is completed and the first residents move into the palace. On this occasion, a grand ball is released and Ferdinand Martius is especially honored by Marianne.
On May 8 they expose a figure of the goddess of victory – Nike on the hill behind the cave. This means the official completion of the construction of the palace after nearly 33 years. The total cost of the construction of the palace and park is 971 692 thalers. This is the equivalent of three tons of gold.
Marianne of Orange-Nassau dies. She is remembered as one of the most unconventional lady of the 19th century, who surpassed its time.
Descendants of Marianne, who reside in the palace, evacuate from Kamieniec area because of the approaching Red Army. Many goods, rooms’ equipment and works of art are exported from the palace. A year later it is destroyed by the fire and the residence becomes a ruin. Marble floors and columns are exported to help rebuild the capital after the uprising. In the 1950s devastation of the palace is progressing.
Property is leased for 40 years.
After the expiry of the lease, the palace returns under the direct management of the owner, i.e. Kamieniec Zabkowicki Municipality. The general condition of the complex is disastrous.
After the intensive repair and replacement done by the owner of the facility, the palace is opened to the public.References:
The first historical record of Lednice locality dates from 1222. At that time there stood a Gothic fort with courtyard, which was lent by Czech King Václav I to Austrian nobleman Sigfried Sirotek in 1249.
At the end of the 13th century the Liechtensteins, originally from Styria, became holders of all of Lednice and of nearby Mikulov. They gradually acquired land on both sides of the Moravian-Austrian border. Members of the family most often found fame in military service, during the Renaissance they expanded their estates through economic activity. From the middle of the 15th century members of the family occupied the highest offices in the land. However, the family’s position in Moravia really changed under the brothers Karel, Maximilian, and Gundakar of Liechtenstein. Through marriage Karel and Maximilian acquired the great wealth of the old Moravian dynasty of the Černohorskýs of Boskovice. At that time the brothers, like their father and grandfather, were Lutheran, but they soon converted to Catholicism, thus preparing the ground for their rise in politics. Particularly Karel, who served at the court of Emperor Rudolf II, became hetman of Moravia in 1608, and was later raised to princely status by King Matyas II and awarded the Duchy of Opava.
During the revolt of the Czech nobility he stood on the side of the Habsburgs, and took part in the Battle of White Mountain. After the uprising was defeated in 1620 he systematically acquired property confiscated from some of the rebels, and the Liechtensteins became the wealthiest family in Moravia, rising in status above the Žerotíns. Their enormous land holdings brought them great profits, and eventually allowed them to carry out their grandious building projects here in Lednice.
In the 16th century it was probably Hartmann II of Liechtenstein who had the old medieval water castle torn down and replaced with a Renaissance chateau. At the end of the 17th century the chateau was torn down and a Baroque palace was built, with an extensive formal garden, and a massive riding hall designed by Johann Bernard Fischer von Erlach that still stands in almost unaltered form.
In the mid-18th century the chateau was again renovated, and in 1815 its front tracts that had been part of the Baroque chateau were removed.
The chateau as it looks today dates from 1846-1858, when Prince Alois II decided that Vienna was not suitable for entertaining in the summer, and had Lednice rebuilt into a summer palace in the spirit of English Gothic. The hall on the ground floor would serve to entertain the European aristocracy at sumptuous banquets, and was furnished with carved wood ceilings, wooden panelling, and select furniture, surpassing anything of its kind in Europe.