Marianne of Orange-Nassau, Princess of the Netherlands, daughter of King William I of the Netherlands and his first wife Friederike Luise Wilhelmine of Prussia, visits for the first time Kamieniec Zabkowicki, which was inherited after her mother. After deciding to build summer residence on its premises, the same year architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel prepares the first draft of the palace. He also involved a young, talented Ferdinand Martius, who is completely absorbed with work on the construction of the palace.
The construction of the building begins in the spring of this year. The works are led by Ferdinand Martius. Karl Schinkel oversees them from Berlin. The walls of the ground floor, all pillars and columns in the chambers and part of the wall surrounding the building are ready in autumn.
Construction of the palace is suspended as a result of divorce between Marianne and Albert. Because of the fact, that the divorce was conducted in an atmosphere of scandal, which was Marianne’s affair with stableman Johannes van Rossum, she was forbidden to stay in Prussia for longer than 24 hours, with a mandatory report at the police station at each entry and exit. She was also imposed with a penalty of infamy.
Marianne visits Kamieniec and orders to resume the works. She passes the palace to her son Frederick Wilhelm Albert. She buys a property in Bila Voda, 12 kilometers away from Kamieniec, so she can visit the palace and supervise the work as often as possible.
Construction of the fourth floor is completed and the first residents move into the palace. On this occasion, a grand ball is released and Ferdinand Martius is especially honored by Marianne.
On May 8 they expose a figure of the goddess of victory – Nike on the hill behind the cave. This means the official completion of the construction of the palace after nearly 33 years. The total cost of the construction of the palace and park is 971 692 thalers. This is the equivalent of three tons of gold.
Marianne of Orange-Nassau dies. She is remembered as one of the most unconventional lady of the 19th century, who surpassed its time.
Descendants of Marianne, who reside in the palace, evacuate from Kamieniec area because of the approaching Red Army. Many goods, rooms’ equipment and works of art are exported from the palace. A year later it is destroyed by the fire and the residence becomes a ruin. Marble floors and columns are exported to help rebuild the capital after the uprising. In the 1950s devastation of the palace is progressing.
Property is leased for 40 years.
After the expiry of the lease, the palace returns under the direct management of the owner, i.e. Kamieniec Zabkowicki Municipality. The general condition of the complex is disastrous.
After the intensive repair and replacement done by the owner of the facility, the palace is opened to the public.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.