The original castle in n a rocky spur was supposedly built in 413 by the Visigoths on the side of a mountain, defended by almost inaccessible cliffs. This fortress controlled the Arnette and the Thoré valleys, overlooking the plain where the town of Mazamet now stands.
Pierre-Raymond de Hautpoul is the first known lord of Hautpoul (mentioned in 1084). He rebuilt the castle, constructed the town walls and built the fortified church of Saint-Pierre d'Hautpoul. He accompanied his suzerain Raymond IV of Toulouse on the First Crude to the Holy Land in 1098.
In the 13th century, the lord of Hautpoul and Auxillan was Izarn d'Hautpoul. He reputedly adopted the Cathar faith. The castle and town was besieged by Simon de Montfort in 1212 during the Crusade against the Cathars of the Languedoc. The town was occupied and burned. Its fortifications were destroyed. However the survivors seem to have returned to Catharism as soon as the Crusaders left.
Around 1560, Huguenots (French Protestants) appeared in the region. The castle was besieged again during the wars of Religion between Catholics and Huguenots.
Today, you can still see the long village of Hautpoul winding down the hillside, along with the vestiges of upper and lower castles. At its foot, the river Arnette still winds, and its waters are still perfect for making wool. The old lower town gate has been restored, with its meurtrière. The village is being rejuvenated: picturesque old houses are occupied by craftsmen and their workshops.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.