Château La Commanderie in Plaigne is one of the rare Cathar castles still inhabited. La Commanderie was built in the 12th century by Guillaume de Plaigne, a Cathar Lord, who took an active role in the massacre of Avignonet and afterwards joined the besieged stronghold as a member of the garrison, along with his brother, at the famous siege of Montségur.
In the 16th century, Barthelemy de Plaigne extended the château. It was sold the Knights of Malta (The Knights Hospitaller) in the 17th century. In the 19th century, the chateau belonged to Mr de Nicol, who modernised the building, and it remained in this family for a century, the last descent being Vilolette de Ferluc.
Today, the imposing castle retains its original spirit of an ancient medieval castle, but modernised to create a family home. It has been beautifully decorated by the current artist-owner and her family, creating a grand but comfortable setting for a holiday, family or company event.References:
Goryōkaku (五稜郭) (literally, 'five-point fort') is a star fort in the Japanese city of Hakodate on the island of Hokkaido. The fortress was completed in 1866. It was the main fortress of the short-lived Republic of Ezo.
Goryōkaku was designed in 1855 by Takeda Ayasaburō and Jules Brunet. Their plans was based on the work of the French architect Vauban. The fortress was completed in 1866, two years before the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate. It is shaped like a five-pointed star. This allowed for greater numbers of gun emplacements on its walls than a traditional Japanese fortress, and reduced the number of blind spots where a cannon could not fire.
The fort was built by the Tokugawa shogunate to protect the Tsugaru Strait against a possible invasion by the Meiji government.
Goryōkaku is famous as the site of the last battle of the Boshin War.