The first historical data concerning the site of Château de Villerouge-Termenès dates from the 12th century. At that time and until the French Revolution, Narbonne's powerful archbishops were the lords of the castle and village of Villerouge- Termenès. Even so, the castle was much coveted and occupied several times.
Indeed, in 1107, Pope Pascal II had to confirm the Archbishop Richard as rightful owner of Villerouge, which had been occupied by Pierre de Peyrepertuse since 1070. The latter gave the castle as dowry to his daughter when she married Pierre Olivier de Termes. It is only in 1110 that the Termes family finally accepted to return the property to the Archbishop of Narbonne.
But the struggle between the lords of Termes and the Archbishops of Narbonne did not stop then. In 1227, Pope Honorius III urged his legate to confirm the Archbishop's rights against the chief of the Crusade, Simon de Montfort, and his vassal, Alain de Roucy. Simon de Montfort had given the title and possessions of Termes to de Roucy, who threatened to take over Villerouge also.
The village is closely linked to the decline of the Cathar church: in 1321, Guilhem Bélibaste, the last known Occitan Cathar perfectus, was burnt alive at Villerouge-Termenès. Guilhem Bélibaste had been initiated into Catharism, and became a perfectus while in hiding in Catalonia. As only perfectii could transmit the religion, by a ceremony of laying on of hands, his death meant the end of the Cathar religion.References:
The famous Italian Medici family have given two queens to France: Catherine, the spouse of Henry II, and Marie, widow of Henry IV, who built the current Luxembourg palace. Maria di Medici had never been happy at the Louvre, still semi-medieval, where the fickle king, did not hesitate to receive his mistresses. The death of Henry IV, assassinated in 1610, left the way open for Marie's project. When she became regent, she was able to give special attention to the construction of an imposing modern residence that would be reminiscent of the Palazzo Pitti and the Boboli Gardens in Florence, where she grew up. The development of the 25-hectare park, which was to serve as a jewel-case for the palace, began immediately.
The architect, Salomon de Brosse, began the work in 1615. Only 16 years later was the palace was completed. Palace of Luxembourg affords a transition between the Renaissance and the Classical period.
In 1750, the Director of the King's Buildings installed in the wing the first public art-gallery in France, in which French and foreign canvases of the royal collections are shown. The Count of Provence and future Louis XVIII, who was living in Petit Luxembourg, had this gallery closed in 1780: leaving to emigrate, he fled from the palace in June 1791.
During the French Revolution the palace was first abandoned and then moved as a national prison. After that it was the seat of the French Directory, and in 1799, the home of the Sénat conservateur and the first residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of the French Republic. The old apartments of Maria di Medici were altered. The floor, which the 80 senators only occupied in 1804, was built in the middle of the present Conference Hall.
Beginning in 1835 the architect Alphonse de Gisors added a new garden wing parallel to the old corps de logis, replicating the look of the original 17th-century facade so precisely that it is difficult to distinguish at first glance the old from the new. The new senate chamber was located in what would have been the courtyard area in-between.
The new wing included a library (bibliothèque) with a cycle of paintings (1845–1847) by Eugène Delacroix. In the 1850s, at the request of Emperor Napoleon III, Gisors created the highly decorated Salle des Conférences, which influenced the nature of subsequent official interiors of the Second Empire, including those of the Palais Garnier.
During the German occupation of Paris (1940–1944), Hermann Göring took over the palace as the headquarters of the Luftwaffe in France, taking for himself a sumptuous suite of rooms to accommodate his visits to the French capital. Since 1958 the Luxembourg palace has been the seat of the French Senate of the Fifth Republic.