Burgruine Hohenburg auf Rosenberg is a ruined medieval castle probably erected in the late 11th century. The castle was first mentioned as castrum Hohenburc in an 1142 deed. It was then the seat of a Bavarian noble family, who as Counts of Lurn administered the Lurngau region within the Duchy of Carinthia. The last count, Altmann, had become Prince-Bishop of Trent in 1124, and upon his death in 1149, the castle was bequested to the Archbishopric of Salzburg and became the seat of episcopal ministeriales.
Under the mediation of Duke Ulrich III of Carinthia, in 1263 a division of the property was arranged between the Salzburg archbishops and the neighbouring Counts of Ortenburg, heirs of the extinct Counts of Lurn, who had aspired the Hohenburg estates for decades. In 1311 Archbishop Conrad IV of Salzburg enfeoffed a part of Hohenburg Castle to the sons of late Count Frederick I of Ortenburg (1247–1304). Nevertheless the residence became less important when it was replaced by nearby Feldsberg Castle as administrative seat of the Salzburg possessions. When the Ortenburg dynasty became extinct in 1418, their possessions passed to the Counts of Celje.
Today only ruins remain. The castle was probably destroyed in the 15th century conflicts between the Counts of Görz and the Habsburg emperor Frederick III over the heritage of Count Ulrich II of Celje. The former chapel was rebuilt as the Baroque St Mary's pilgrimage church (Maria in Hohenburg) in 1707.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.