St. Michael’s, one of the main churches in Lüneburg, is a good example of the red-brick hall churches of Northern Germany. In AD 956 the Holy-Roman emperor, Otto I, presented the Benedictine Abbey with the income from customs deriving from the extraction of the salt, which later made Lüneburg both famous and extremely wealthy.
St. Michael’s was at that time part of the castle of the Billunger ducal family, which was located on a hill in Lüneburg. This was the family Abbey and members of the Billungers were buried there. However, in 1371 the conflicts between the magnates and the city of Lüneburg over the income from the trade with salt turned into an open rebellion and the people from the city attacked the castle and tore it down. The Abbey was later relocated and rebuilt inside the town itself. This was part of the magnates effort to regain the power in the city. In connection with this the remains of the ducal families of the Billungs and the Welfs – who had taken over – were transferred to the new church.
The building of the church was commenced in 1376 and finished in 1412. It measures 53 m long, 26 m wide and 20 m high. The tower raises 79 m high into the air. The church was built in red-brick and stands as one of the more prominent examples of this traditional form of construction in the area. It is a prime example of the so-called “Halle Kirchen” in Northern Germany and a prominent stop on the European Route of Brick Gothic.
As befitted an important church in one of the wealthy towns in the Hanseatic League, it was fitted with a number of exquisite pieces of art. One of these was the famous Golden Panel (Goldene Tafel), which served both as a retable and reliquary on the main altar.
The Golden Panel was originally a Romanesque golden antepedium, which later became enclosed in a retable consisting of two sets of double wings, painted by the “Master of the Golden Panel in Lüneburg”(c. 1431-1435). The central Romanesque antepedium was destroyed in 1698 by robbers, who melted it down, but the wings still exist and are housed in the Landesmuseum in Hannover. The closed wings showed the Crucifixion on one side and the Brazen Serpent on the other. The insides of the outer wings and the insides of the inner wings depicted 36 scenes from the Life of the Virgin and the Passion of Christ. On the inside of the inner wings were carved and guided figures of saints and prophets. Around the inserted Romanesque antepedium golden reliquaries were placed in niches; hence the name.References:
Glimmingehus, is the best preserved medieval stronghold in Scandinavia. It was built 1499-1506, during an era when Scania formed a vital part of Denmark, and contains many defensive arrangements of the era, such as parapets, false doors and dead-end corridors, 'murder-holes' for pouring boiling pitch over the attackers, moats, drawbridges and various other forms of death traps to surprise trespassers and protect the nobles against peasant uprisings. The lower part of the castle's stone walls are 2.4 meters (94 inches) thick and the upper part 1.8 meters (71 inches).
Construction was started in 1499 by the Danish knight Jens Holgersen Ulfstand and stone-cutter-mason and architect Adam van Düren, a North German master who also worked on Lund Cathedral. Construction was completed in 1506.
Ulfstand was a councillor, nobleman and admiral serving under John I of Denmark and many objects have been uncovered during archeological excavations that demonstrate the extravagant lifestyle of the knight's family at Glimmingehus up until Ulfstand's death in 1523. Some of the most expensive objects for sale in Europe during this period, such as Venetian glass, painted glass from the Rhine district and Spanish ceramics have been found here. Evidence of the family's wealth can also be seen inside the stone fortress, where everyday comforts for the knight's family included hot air channels in the walls and bench seats in the window recesses. Although considered comfortable for its period, it has also been argued that Glimmingehus was an expression of "Knighthood nostalgia" and not considered opulent or progressive enough even to the knight's contemporaries and especially not to later generations of the Scanian nobility. Glimmingehus is thought to have served as a residential castle for only a few generations before being transformed into a storage facility for grain.
An order from Charles XI to the administrators of the Swedish dominion of Scania in 1676 to demolish the castle, in order to ensure that it would not fall into the hands of the Danish king during the Scanian War, could not be executed. A first attempt, in which 20 Scanian farmers were ordered to assist, proved unsuccessful. An additional force of 130 men were sent to Glimmingehus to execute the order in a second attempt. However, before they could carry out the order, a Danish-Dutch naval division arrived in Ystad, and the Swedes had to abandon the demolition attempts. Throughout the 18th century the castle was used as deposit for agricultural produce and in 1924 it was donated to the Swedish state. Today it is administered by the Swedish National Heritage Board.
On site there is a museum, medieval kitchen, shop and restaurant and coffee house. During summer time there are several guided tours daily. In local folklore, the castle is described as haunted by multiple ghosts and the tradition of storytelling inspired by the castle is continued in the summer events at the castle called "Strange stories and terrifying tales".