Arsaniou Monastery for old men was possibly founded during the 2nd Byzantine period (961-1204). It was founded by a monk named Arsenios, after whom it was named.
According to the most likely version of events, it was deserted at one point due to pirates causing problems to coastal hamlets and, like many other Cretan monasteries, it was renovated before 1600. The Church of Agios Georgios, the Catholicon of the Monastery, a cruciform domed basilica, was inaugurated during the late 16th century.
The great earthquake of 1856 destroyed a large part of the monastery and a decade later, the monks donated its property for the war of liberation of 1866. During the final Cretan revolution (1897-1898), Arsani suffered its own holocaust, with the Abbot Gabriel Klados meeting his doom after conflict with the Ottomans. This was the final contribution of the monastery shortly before the liberation of Crete.
The next landmark in the history of the monastery came in 1941, when the Germans executed monk Damianos Kallergis for fostering guerillas.
The monastery was renovated in the early 1970s, with the addition of murals to the church and the construction of the museum and conference center.References:
First record of Kastelholma (or Kastelholm) castle is from the year 1388 in the contract of Queen Margaret I of Denmark, where a large portion of the inheritance of Bo Jonsson Grip was given to the queen. The heyday of the castle was in the 15th and 16th centuries when it was administrated by Danish and Swedish kings and stewards of the realms. Kastelhoma was expanded and enhanced several times.
In the end of 16th century castle was owned by the previous queen Catherine Jagellon (Stenbock), an enemy of the King of Sweden Eric XIV. King Eric conquered Kastelholma in 1599 and all defending officers were taken to Turku and executed. The castle was damaged under the siege and it took 30 years to renovate it.
In 1634 Åland was joined with the County of Åbo and Björneborg and Kastelholma lost its administrative status.