Radegg was a spur castle built around the year 1200 and destroyed around the year 1300. It is located high above the Wangental on a spur of the Rossberg which drops off steeply on three sides in Osterfingen in the municipality of Wilchingen.
Little is known about their origin and destruction nor about those who had built the castle, the barons von Radegg. This family is first mentioned in 1188 with a reference to Heinrich Scado. A knight Rudolf nobilis dictus Schade de Radegg is documented around the year 1225. In the 13th century there existed, in addition to the barons von Radegg, a second family of the same name. The bourgeois family Schad von Radegg settled in Schaffhausen in the Late Middle Ages. This makes it difficult to firmly assign individuals to the Ruins of Radegg. This baronial family died out in 1333. According to Johann Jakob Rüeger, chronicler of the history of Schaffhausen, the Randecker family was related to the lords of the castles of Burg Randeck, Randenburg and Schloss Randegg.
The remains of the walls still visible today were not built before 1200. Whether or not there was a previous wooden construction on this site cannot be excluded, but also cannot be demonstrated. The castle was presumably destroyed shortly after 1300. By whom and why is unclear. On the inside of the castle, the limestone has reddened, which is suggestive of a fire. One reason for the destruction could be that the von Radegg family had attempted to protect the Rheinau Abbey from the claims of the neighboring von Krenkingen family. In addition, arrowheads and crossbow bolts were discovered during excavations.
The castle was built along a line. It comprised a massive tower, a courtyard with a cistern and a second tower. The eastern defensive walls are up to four meters thick, whereas the southern walls facing the steep Wangental are only 2.8 meters thick. The building plan, which includes embossed corner blocks and massive stone blocks, is indicative of a construction date around 1200. The northeastern plateau is protected by ramparts and moats.In addition, there are still visible traces of earlier mining of materials.
Hiking trails lead from Osterfingen through the Wangental to Bad Osterfingen. It is a steep climb directly up to the ruins. The second path runs less steeply from Osterfingen through the Haartel Valley to the Rossberghof. From there it takes about 30 minutes to the ruins. The site is freely accessible with the proper caution. There is a rest area and fire pit at the ruins.References:
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.