The Castello Visconteo di Pagazzano is a moated, late-medieval castle which originates from the 11th century. It was burned down and 200 inhabitants were killed in a battle in 1353. The castle and the territory of Gera d’Adda, including Pagazzano, was inherited in 1354 by Bernabò Visconti. The territory was disputed over the centuries by surrounding ruling forces, and various Visconti descendants. In the 19th century, the castle was owned by the Crivelli family until 1968 when it was bought by a private initiative, and sold to the Comune di Pagazzano in the year 2000.
The structure has been built with bricks and is rectangular in shape. The southern part has lost the towers at the south-east and south-west corners. In 1553 Galeazzo Visconti ordered the integration of the mansion into the castle. The drawbridge still exists and is used as pedestrian passage, the castle is also surrounded by a moat full of water. The drawbridge is on the northern side and is about 4 metres long, it still works today. The main entrance is also here, situated in the majestic central tower. The defensive use of this central tower depended on a system of battlements. Along the walls there is a look out tower where a bell rang, so the people could take refuge inside the walls in case of danger. The oldest part includes huge rooms and the dungeons.
German crusaders known as the Livonian Brothers of the Sword began construction of the Cēsis castle (Wenden) near the hill fort in 1209. When the castle was enlarged and fortified, it served as the residence for the Order's Master from 1237 till 1561, with periodic interruptions. Its ruins are some of the most majestic castle ruins in the Baltic states. Once the most important castle of the Livonian Order, it was the official residence for the masters of the order.
In 1577, during the Livonian War, the garrison destroyed the castle to prevent it from falling into the control of Ivan the Terrible, who was decisively defeated in the Battle of Wenden (1578).
In 1598 it was incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Wenden Voivodship was created here. In 1620 Wenden was conquered by Sweden. It was rebuilt afterwards, but was destroyed again in 1703 during the Great Northern War by the Russian army and left in a ruined state. Already from the end of the 16th century, the premises of the Order's castle were adjusted to the requirements of the Cēsis Castle estate. When in 1777 the Cēsis Castle estate was obtained by Count Carl Sievers, he had his new residence house built on the site of the eastern block of the castle, joining its end wall with the fortification tower.
Since 1949, the Cēsis History Museum has been located in this New Castle of the Cēsis Castle estate. The front yard of the New Castle is enclosed by a granary and a stable-coach house, which now houses the Exhibition Hall of the Museum. Beside the granary there is the oldest brewery in Latvia, Cēsu alus darītava, which was built in 1878 during the later Count Sievers' time, but its origins date back to the period of the Livonian Order. Further on, the Cēsis Castle park is situated, which was laid out in 1812. The park has the romantic characteristic of that time, with its winding footpaths, exotic plants, and the waters of the pond reflecting the castle's ruins. Nowadays also one of the towers is open for tourists.