The settlement of Cala Morell is a Menorcan pretalayotic archaeological site situated on a 35-meter-high coastal headland which closes the northeast side of Cala Morell's bay. This promontory is protected by a dry-stone wall, which is found in the area where the promontory connects to solid ground. Radiocarbon dating of the site offers an approximate chronology of its occupation between 1600 and 1200 BC.
Around twelve Bronze Age dwelling navetes can be seen throughout the site. There is also an indeterminate 4-meter diameter circular structure built with large stone slabs which was put up on the promontory's highest part. There are two large hollows which were cut through the bedrock towards the settlement's central area, which could have been used to collect rainwater. All the structures within the settlement are enclosed by a dry-stone wall which closes access to the promontory from solid ground. In the side of the promontory which faces the sea there are no remains of defensive structures, since the rocks are high and sheer enough, forming a natural defence.
During the past few years two dwelling navetas and the circular construction erected on the highest part of the settlement have been excavated. Both navetas are oriented to the south and are domestic units which abut the outer wall. Inside these navetas there are benches surrounding a hearth. There is a grinding stone base and a clay structure outside naveta 11 and facing its façade, and both elements are most likely related to food preparation (cereal grinding). Naveta 12 does not have this type of elements related to it, although it has two small stretches of wall that close its entrance.
All the evidence, including the structures, the recovered artifacts (pottery, bone tools such as awls and spatulas, grinding stones, etc) and the huge quantity of domesticated animal bones (goats, sheep, pigs and, above all, cow) ) suggest that the function of these navetas was domestic. Moreover, the complete absence of marine animals (fish, mollusks, crustaceans, etc.) seems to indicate that the inhabitants of this place, despite living by the sea, did not consume or use marine resources. This fact, even though it can seem surprising, is something attested in all sites dating to the Prehistory of the island.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.