The settlement of Cala Morell is a Menorcan pretalayotic archaeological site situated on a 35-meter-high coastal headland which closes the northeast side of Cala Morell's bay. This promontory is protected by a dry-stone wall, which is found in the area where the promontory connects to solid ground. Radiocarbon dating of the site offers an approximate chronology of its occupation between 1600 and 1200 BC.
Around twelve Bronze Age dwelling navetes can be seen throughout the site. There is also an indeterminate 4-meter diameter circular structure built with large stone slabs which was put up on the promontory's highest part. There are two large hollows which were cut through the bedrock towards the settlement's central area, which could have been used to collect rainwater. All the structures within the settlement are enclosed by a dry-stone wall which closes access to the promontory from solid ground. In the side of the promontory which faces the sea there are no remains of defensive structures, since the rocks are high and sheer enough, forming a natural defence.
During the past few years two dwelling navetas and the circular construction erected on the highest part of the settlement have been excavated. Both navetas are oriented to the south and are domestic units which abut the outer wall. Inside these navetas there are benches surrounding a hearth. There is a grinding stone base and a clay structure outside naveta 11 and facing its façade, and both elements are most likely related to food preparation (cereal grinding). Naveta 12 does not have this type of elements related to it, although it has two small stretches of wall that close its entrance.
All the evidence, including the structures, the recovered artifacts (pottery, bone tools such as awls and spatulas, grinding stones, etc) and the huge quantity of domesticated animal bones (goats, sheep, pigs and, above all, cow) ) suggest that the function of these navetas was domestic. Moreover, the complete absence of marine animals (fish, mollusks, crustaceans, etc.) seems to indicate that the inhabitants of this place, despite living by the sea, did not consume or use marine resources. This fact, even though it can seem surprising, is something attested in all sites dating to the Prehistory of the island.References:
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.