ThevPozzuoli Cathedral site probably originated as part of the town's capitolium of the Greek or Samnite era, radically rebuilt in the Republican and Augustan eras. Between the end of the 5th and the start of the 6th century the inhabitants of the town decided to rededicate the temple as a church to Proculus of Pozzuoli. In 1538 it suffered major damage as Tripergole subsided and Monte Nuovo was formed. Bishop Gian Matteo Castaldo restored it in 1544.
Next to the church was a chapel, initially dedicated to James the Great and first built in 1354 by prince Louis of Taranto, husband of Joanna I of Naples. It was rebuilt following the eruption of Monte Nuovo in 1538 and entrusted to the confraternity dedicated to the Most Holy Body of Christ (Santissimo Corpo di Cristo), to which the chapel was rededicated at the same time. In 1817 it was annexed to the Cathedral by bishop Carlo Maria Rosini and bishop Michele Zezza linked it to the former 12th century church of Santissima Trinità.
The central nave was completely destroyed by a fire on the night of 16–17 May 1964. It broke out in the upper regions of the wooden ceiling which covered the vaulted ceiling and became so hot that it affected the stone walls and Roman marble. The paintings were saved and re-housed in the sacristy, the Santissimo Corpo chapel, the Capodimonte, the San Martino and other museums and galleries in Naples. Restoration work began under the museologist Ezio De Felice in 1968 and for the next forty years Santa Maria della Consolazione served as the city's cathedral, with San Paolo added as a co-cathedral in 1995. The 1633 bell-tower was demolished in 1968 after removing three of its four historic bells and has not yet been replaced.
The entrance is through the remains of the facade and the first two chapels of the Baroque cathedral, now presented as an uncovered narthex in front of the new glass facade, engraved with the destroyed front columns of the pronaos. Inside, it has a single nave formed of the ancient cella and pronaos, with the gaps between the columns along its long sides filled with glass. The temple floor has been raised back to its original level, creating an inclined stylobate floor with benches connecting to the chancel, which is on a lower level. This also creates space to display the archaeological remains of the Republican temple's podium in the basement. A new west-facing altar has been installed in the chancel, with an episcopal chair on the site of the old altar and a new marble ambo. The early 20th century frescoes in the choir have been restored and the paintings reinstated. The former sacristy and Santissimo Sacramento chapel have resumed their previous functions, now with a new tabernacle to the reserved sacrament.References:
German crusaders known as the Livonian Brothers of the Sword began construction of the Cēsis castle (Wenden) near the hill fort in 1209. When the castle was enlarged and fortified, it served as the residence for the Order's Master from 1237 till 1561, with periodic interruptions. Its ruins are some of the most majestic castle ruins in the Baltic states. Once the most important castle of the Livonian Order, it was the official residence for the masters of the order.
In 1577, during the Livonian War, the garrison destroyed the castle to prevent it from falling into the control of Ivan the Terrible, who was decisively defeated in the Battle of Wenden (1578).
In 1598 it was incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Wenden Voivodship was created here. In 1620 Wenden was conquered by Sweden. It was rebuilt afterwards, but was destroyed again in 1703 during the Great Northern War by the Russian army and left in a ruined state. Already from the end of the 16th century, the premises of the Order's castle were adjusted to the requirements of the Cēsis Castle estate. When in 1777 the Cēsis Castle estate was obtained by Count Carl Sievers, he had his new residence house built on the site of the eastern block of the castle, joining its end wall with the fortification tower.
Since 1949, the Cēsis History Museum has been located in this New Castle of the Cēsis Castle estate. The front yard of the New Castle is enclosed by a granary and a stable-coach house, which now houses the Exhibition Hall of the Museum. Beside the granary there is the oldest brewery in Latvia, Cēsu alus darītava, which was built in 1878 during the later Count Sievers' time, but its origins date back to the period of the Livonian Order. Further on, the Cēsis Castle park is situated, which was laid out in 1812. The park has the romantic characteristic of that time, with its winding footpaths, exotic plants, and the waters of the pond reflecting the castle's ruins. Nowadays also one of the towers is open for tourists.