ThevPozzuoli Cathedral site probably originated as part of the town's capitolium of the Greek or Samnite era, radically rebuilt in the Republican and Augustan eras. Between the end of the 5th and the start of the 6th century the inhabitants of the town decided to rededicate the temple as a church to Proculus of Pozzuoli. In 1538 it suffered major damage as Tripergole subsided and Monte Nuovo was formed. Bishop Gian Matteo Castaldo restored it in 1544.
Next to the church was a chapel, initially dedicated to James the Great and first built in 1354 by prince Louis of Taranto, husband of Joanna I of Naples. It was rebuilt following the eruption of Monte Nuovo in 1538 and entrusted to the confraternity dedicated to the Most Holy Body of Christ (Santissimo Corpo di Cristo), to which the chapel was rededicated at the same time. In 1817 it was annexed to the Cathedral by bishop Carlo Maria Rosini and bishop Michele Zezza linked it to the former 12th century church of Santissima Trinità.
The central nave was completely destroyed by a fire on the night of 16–17 May 1964. It broke out in the upper regions of the wooden ceiling which covered the vaulted ceiling and became so hot that it affected the stone walls and Roman marble. The paintings were saved and re-housed in the sacristy, the Santissimo Corpo chapel, the Capodimonte, the San Martino and other museums and galleries in Naples. Restoration work began under the museologist Ezio De Felice in 1968 and for the next forty years Santa Maria della Consolazione served as the city's cathedral, with San Paolo added as a co-cathedral in 1995. The 1633 bell-tower was demolished in 1968 after removing three of its four historic bells and has not yet been replaced.
The entrance is through the remains of the facade and the first two chapels of the Baroque cathedral, now presented as an uncovered narthex in front of the new glass facade, engraved with the destroyed front columns of the pronaos. Inside, it has a single nave formed of the ancient cella and pronaos, with the gaps between the columns along its long sides filled with glass. The temple floor has been raised back to its original level, creating an inclined stylobate floor with benches connecting to the chancel, which is on a lower level. This also creates space to display the archaeological remains of the Republican temple's podium in the basement. A new west-facing altar has been installed in the chancel, with an episcopal chair on the site of the old altar and a new marble ambo. The early 20th century frescoes in the choir have been restored and the paintings reinstated. The former sacristy and Santissimo Sacramento chapel have resumed their previous functions, now with a new tabernacle to the reserved sacrament.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.