Santa María de Sandoval Monastery

Mansilla Mayor, Spain

Santa María de Sandoval Monastery was built on land donated in 1142 by Alfonso VII to Count Pedro Ponce de Minerva and his wife Estefanía Ramírez.

After receiving numerous donations and possessing extensive territories, it entered decadence in the fifteenth century. In 1592 and 1615 it was grass of the flames, reason for which it had to be rebuilt. The permanence of the monks remained until 1835, date in which the exclaustrado with the confiscation of Mendizábal took place.

Its architectural layout responds to that indicated by the Cistercian Rule. It has two great cloisters, although the one that is conserved is realized in century XVII, in him it maintains the severity of the Chapter Room.

The church is of plant of Latin cross, with three ships, cruiser and semicircular apses. The primitive gateway by the north gable, is Romanesque, and presents a unique resolution of its archivolts. The west, which is now the entrance, is a pointed arch, standing out its beauty by the simplicity of its construction and decorative elements based on floral elements, figures of monks and the calvary of the tympanum of the door. In the south gable rises the belfry that is of later times.

In its interior they emphasize the sarcophagi of the founders, arranged to both sides of the altar, in the middle mounted the major altarpiece in which participated between 1605 and 1618 Pedro Sánchez, Cistercian monk

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Details

Founded: 1142
Category: Religious sites in Spain

More Information

www.turismocastillayleon.com

Rating

4.5/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Daniel Faix (2 years ago)
Beautiful ...really need to be renovated and preserved as national patrimoine
Mercedes Sa. Vega (2 years ago)
Un lugar q transmite paz y tranquilidad como los monjes deseaban al elegir el sitio.
Lia Diez (2 years ago)
Perdido en un pueblo apartado de la carretera general se encuentra este magnífico monasterio que merece la pena conocer. Esperemos que lo acaben de rehabilitar. Visita recomendada
Bodil Beier (2 years ago)
Meget forsømt. Kirken lukket. Ingen pile til at vise vej. Men idyllisk landskab
カステロロシオ (2 years ago)
Monasterio de Santa María de Sandoval, se encuentra en el término de Villaverde de Sandoval, municipio de Mansilla Mayor, provincia de León. La presencia humana, en esta zona se remonta a la prehistoria, los signos más evidentes de ocupación se asocian gentes de la edad del bronce, asentados donde está la ciudad astur, de Lancia, en el término de Villasabariego muy próxima a Villamoros de Mansilla. Con la conquista de dicha ciudad por el general romano Publio Carisio, astures y romanos convivieron estas tierras hasta finales del siglo. Posteriormente se benefició de la política de repoblación de Alfonso III, asentándose en estos lugares asturianos, gallegos, cántabros y mozárabes. Más tarde llegarían los monjes cistercienses para fundar el monasterio de Sandoval. Así fue humanizandose estos parajes, hasta la actual conformación municipal, dejando de pertenecer en el siglo XIX, al ayuntamiento de Sabariego. En Villaverde de Sandoval está el monumento más importante del Ayuntamiento, se trata del monasterio cisterciense de Santa María de Sandoval. Se construyó sobre terrenos donados en 1.142 por Alfonso VII al Conde Pedro Ponce de Minerva y a su esposa Estefanía Ramírez, en 1.167, el mismo Conde los cedió a los monjes del monasterio vallisoletano de la Espina para que allí construyeran otro, las obras debieron iniciarse a finales del siglo XII fue habitado hasta 1835, en que se produjo el exclausurado con la desamortización de Mendizábal. Posee dos grandes claustros, aunque el que se conserva es el realizado en el siglo XVII. La Iglesia es de planta de cruz latina con tres naves crucero y absides semicirculares. La primitiva puerta de acceso por hastial norte es románica y presenta una singular resolución de sus arquivoltas. La del Oeste qué es ahora la de entrada, es de arco apuntado, destaca su belleza por la sencillez de construcción y elementos decorativos. En el hastial sur se levanta la espadaña de tiempos posteriores. En su interior destacan los dos sarcófagos de los fundadores dispuestos a ambos lados del altar. En el medio se montó el retablo mayor en el que participó entre 1.605 y 1.618, Pedro Sánchez, monje cisterciense. Interesante el retablillo del trasaltar obra del siglo XVII, con una sucesión de bustos relicarios. Fue declarado Monumento Histórico en 1931, y del que se ha realizado un plan director para su recuperación. Es la Iglesia del pueblo y sigue con el culto todos los Domingos y algún día especial, también se encuentra dentro del perímetro del convento, el cementerio.
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Pembroke Castle

Pembroke Castle is a Norman castle, founded in 1093. It survived many changes of ownership and is now the largest privately owned castle in Wales. It was the birthplace of Henry Tudor (later Henry VII of England) in 1457.

Pembroke Castle stands on a site that has been occupied at least since the Roman period. Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury founded the first castle here in the 11th century. Although only made from earth and wood, Pembroke Castle resisted several Welsh attacks and sieges over the next 30 years. The castle was established at the heart of the Norman-controlled lands of southwest Wales.

When William Rufus died, Arnulf de Montgomery joined his elder brother, Robert of Bellême, in rebellion against Henry I, William's brother and successor as king; when the rebellion failed, he was forced to forfeit all his British lands and titles. Henry appointed his castellan, but when the chosen ally turned out to be incompetent, the King reappointed Gerald in 1102. By 1138 King Stephen had given Pembroke Castle to Gilbert de Clare who used it as an important base in the Norman invasion of Ireland.

In August 1189 Richard I arranged the marriage of Isabel, de Clare's granddaughter, to William Marshal who received both the castle and the title, Earl of Pembroke. He had the castle rebuilt in stone and established the great keep at the same time. Marshal was succeeded in turn by each of his five sons. His third son, Gilbert Marshal, was responsible for enlarging and further strengthening the castle between 1234 and 1241.

Later de Valence family held Pembroke for 70 years. During this time, the town was fortified with defensive walls, three main gates and a postern. Pembroke Castle became de Valence's military base for fighting the Welsh princes during the conquest of North Wales by Edward I between 1277 and 1295.

Pembroke Castle then reverted to the crown. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the castle was a place of peace until the outbreak of the English Civil War. Although most of South Wales sided with the King, Pembroke declared for Parliament. It was besieged by Royalist troops but was saved after Parliamentary reinforcements arrived by sea from nearby Milford Haven. Parliamentary forces then went on to capture the Royalist castles of Tenby, Haverfordwest and Carew.

In 1648, at the beginning of the Second Civil War, Pembroke's commander Colonel John Poyer led a Royalist uprising. Oliver Cromwell came to Pembroke on 24 May 1648 and took the castle after a seven-week siege. Its three leaders were found guilty of treason and Cromwell ordered the castle to be destroyed. Townspeople were even encouraged to disassemble the fortress and re-use its stone for their purposes.

The castle was then abandoned and allowed to decay. It remained in ruins until 1880, when a three-year restoration project was undertaken. Nothing further was done until 1928, when Major-General Sir Ivor Philipps acquired the castle and began an extensive restoration of the castle's walls, gatehouses, and towers. After his death, a trust was set up for the castle, jointly managed by the Philipps family and Pembroke town council.

Architecture

The castle is sited on a strategic rocky promontory by the Milford Haven Waterway. The first fortification on the site was a Norman motte-and-bailey. It had earthen ramparts and a timber palisade.

In 1189, Pembroke Castle was acquired by William Marshal. He soon became Lord Marshal of England, and set about turning the earth and wood fort into an impressive Norman stone castle. The inner ward, which was constructed first, contains the huge round keep with its domed roof. Its original first-floor entrance was through an external stairwell. Inside, a spiral staircase connected its four stories. The keep's domed roof also has several putlog holes that supported a wooden fighting-platform. If the castle was attacked, the hoarding allowed defenders to go out beyond the keep's massive walls above the heads of the attackers.

The inner ward's curtain wall had a large horseshoe-shaped gateway. But only a thin wall was required along the promontory. This section of the wall has a small observation turret and a square stone platform. Domestic buildings including William Marshal's Great Hall and private apartments were within the inner ward. The 13th century keep is 23 metres tall with walls up to 6 metres thick at its base.

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The outer ward was defended by a large twin-towered gatehouse, a barbican and several round towers. The outer wall is 5 metres thick in places and constructed from Siltstone ashlar.

Although Pembroke Castle is a Norman-style enclosure castle with great keep, it can be more accurately described as a linear fortification because, like the later 13th-century castles at Caernarfon and Conwy, it was built on a rocky promontory surrounded by water. This meant that attacking forces could only assault on a narrow front. Architecturally, Pembroke's thickest walls and towers are all concentrated on its landward side facing the town, with Pembroke River providing a natural defense around the rest of its perimeter.