The Plaza de toros de la Real Maestranza de Caballería de Sevilla is a 12,000-capacity bullring in Seville, Spain. During the annual Seville Fair in Seville, it is the site of one of the most well-known bullfighting festivals in the world. It is a part of the Real Maestranza de Caballería de Sevilla, a noble guild established for traditional cavalry training.
Construction began in 1749 of a circular ring on Baratillo Hill to replace the rectangular bullring that was previously located there. In 1761, the construction began to incorporate ochavas (each ochava being equivalent to four arches). The inner facade of the plaza (Palco del Príncipe) was completed in 1765. This 'box' consists of two parts: the access gate through which the successful bullfighters exit, and the theater box itself, which is reserved for the exclusive use of the Spanish Royal Family. The topmost part is composed of four arches over which is built a half-orange vault, whose topmost portion is covered by white and blue tiles. The sculptural group that concludes the composition is the work of the Portuguese sculptor Cayetano de Acosta. The Palco was built for the Infante de España, Felipe de Borbón, son of Felipe V and Isabel de Farnesio.
When Carlos III prohibited bullfighting celebrations in 1786, work on the sculptures was halted, even though only one-third of the plaza had been completed at the time.
After 34 years the cover of the launching slips of half of the ring was finished, to the left and right of the Palco del Príncipe; being easily viewed from the cathedral and the Giralda it was reflected in a great number of stamps of the time. By 1868 the Palco de la Diputación was in such a lamentable state that Italian sculptor Augusto Franchy undertook the improvement himself, building a new area with a marble balustrade and the crest of the Real Maestranza de Caballería. The construction of five balconies to each side of the Palco de la Diputación was also added where the ring's clock is currently situated. The construction of the ring was completed in 1881; two thirds was constructed in stone, with the remainder in wood.
Between 1914 and 1915 the stone grandstands were redone in brick under the direction of Sevillian architect Aníbal González. All the rows were reconstructed with a smoother slope. Ten to twelve rows of shaded seating were constructed as well as fourteen rows in the sun and three rows of barrier. A row of armchairs were built in the superior part of the shaded area, in front of the theater boxes.References:
Angelokastro is a Byzantine castle on the island of Corfu. It is located at the top of the highest peak of the island"s shoreline in the northwest coast near Palaiokastritsa and built on particularly precipitous and rocky terrain. It stands 305 m on a steep cliff above the sea and surveys the City of Corfu and the mountains of mainland Greece to the southeast and a wide area of Corfu toward the northeast and northwest.
Angelokastro is one of the most important fortified complexes of Corfu. It was an acropolis which surveyed the region all the way to the southern Adriatic and presented a formidable strategic vantage point to the occupant of the castle.
Angelokastro formed a defensive triangle with the castles of Gardiki and Kassiopi, which covered Corfu"s defences to the south, northwest and northeast.
The castle never fell, despite frequent sieges and attempts at conquering it through the centuries, and played a decisive role in defending the island against pirate incursions and during three sieges of Corfu by the Ottomans, significantly contributing to their defeat.
During invasions it helped shelter the local peasant population. The villagers also fought against the invaders playing an active role in the defence of the castle.
The exact period of the building of the castle is not known, but it has often been attributed to the reigns of Michael I Komnenos and his son Michael II Komnenos. The first documentary evidence for the fortress dates to 1272, when Giordano di San Felice took possession of it for Charles of Anjou, who had seized Corfu from Manfred, King of Sicily in 1267.
From 1387 to the end of the 16th century, Angelokastro was the official capital of Corfu and the seat of the Provveditore Generale del Levante, governor of the Ionian islands and commander of the Venetian fleet, which was stationed in Corfu.
The governor of the castle (the castellan) was normally appointed by the City council of Corfu and was chosen amongst the noblemen of the island.
Angelokastro is considered one of the most imposing architectural remains in the Ionian Islands.