The Plaza de toros de la Real Maestranza de Caballería de Sevilla is a 12,000-capacity bullring in Seville, Spain. During the annual Seville Fair in Seville, it is the site of one of the most well-known bullfighting festivals in the world. It is a part of the Real Maestranza de Caballería de Sevilla, a noble guild established for traditional cavalry training.
Construction began in 1749 of a circular ring on Baratillo Hill to replace the rectangular bullring that was previously located there. In 1761, the construction began to incorporate ochavas (each ochava being equivalent to four arches). The inner facade of the plaza (Palco del Príncipe) was completed in 1765. This 'box' consists of two parts: the access gate through which the successful bullfighters exit, and the theater box itself, which is reserved for the exclusive use of the Spanish Royal Family. The topmost part is composed of four arches over which is built a half-orange vault, whose topmost portion is covered by white and blue tiles. The sculptural group that concludes the composition is the work of the Portuguese sculptor Cayetano de Acosta. The Palco was built for the Infante de España, Felipe de Borbón, son of Felipe V and Isabel de Farnesio.
When Carlos III prohibited bullfighting celebrations in 1786, work on the sculptures was halted, even though only one-third of the plaza had been completed at the time.
After 34 years the cover of the launching slips of half of the ring was finished, to the left and right of the Palco del Príncipe; being easily viewed from the cathedral and the Giralda it was reflected in a great number of stamps of the time. By 1868 the Palco de la Diputación was in such a lamentable state that Italian sculptor Augusto Franchy undertook the improvement himself, building a new area with a marble balustrade and the crest of the Real Maestranza de Caballería. The construction of five balconies to each side of the Palco de la Diputación was also added where the ring's clock is currently situated. The construction of the ring was completed in 1881; two thirds was constructed in stone, with the remainder in wood.
Between 1914 and 1915 the stone grandstands were redone in brick under the direction of Sevillian architect Aníbal González. All the rows were reconstructed with a smoother slope. Ten to twelve rows of shaded seating were constructed as well as fourteen rows in the sun and three rows of barrier. A row of armchairs were built in the superior part of the shaded area, in front of the theater boxes.References:
From its origin as a small stronghold built by the ancient Illyrian tribe Dalmatae, becoming a royal castle that was the seat of many Croatian kings, to its final development as a large fortress during the Ottoman wars in Europe, Klis Fortress has guarded the frontier, being lost and re-conquered several times. Due to its location on a pass that separates the mountains Mosor and Kozjak, the fortress served as a major source of defense in Dalmatia, especially against the Ottoman advance, and has been a key crossroad between the Mediterranean belt and the Balkan rear.
Since Duke Mislav of the Duchy of Croatia made Klis Fortress the seat of his throne in the middle of the 9th century, the fortress served as the seat of many Croatia"s rulers. The reign of his successor, Duke Trpimir I, the founder of the Croatian royal House of Trpimirović, is significant for spreading Christianity in the Duchy of Croatia. He largely expanded the Klis Fortress, and in Rižinice, in the valley under the fortress, he built a church and the first Benedictine monastery in Croatia. During the reign of the first Croatian king, Tomislav, Klis and Biograd na Moru were his chief residences.
In March 1242 at Klis Fortress, Tatars who were a constituent segment of the Mongol army under the leadership of Kadan suffered a major defeat while in pursuit of the Hungarian army led by King Béla IV. After their defeat by Croatian forces, the Mongols retreated, and Béla IV rewarded many Croatian towns and nobles with 'substantial riches'. During the Late Middle Ages, the fortress was governed by Croatian nobility, amongst whom Paul I Šubić of Bribir was the most significant. During his reign, the House of Šubić controlled most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia. Excluding the brief possession by the forces of Bosnian King, Tvrtko I, the fortress remained in Hungaro-Croatian hands for the next several hundred years, until the 16th century.
Klis Fortress is probably best known for its defense against the Ottoman invasion of Europe in the early 16th century. Croatian captain Petar Kružić led the defense of the fortress against a Turkish invasion and siege that lasted for more than two and a half decades. During this defense, as Kružić and his soldiers fought without allies against the Turks, the military faction of Uskoks was formed, which later became famous as an elite Croatian militant sect. Ultimately, the defenders were defeated and the fortress was occupied by the Ottomans in 1537. After more than a century under Ottoman rule, in 1669, Klis Fortress was besieged and seized by the Republic of Venice, thus moving the border between Christian and Muslim Europe further east and helping to contribute to the decline of the Ottoman Empire. The Venetians restored and enlarged the fortress, but it was taken by the Austrians after Napoleon extinguished the republic itself in 1797. Today, Klis Fortress contains a museum where visitors to this historic military structure can see an array of arms, armor, and traditional uniforms.