In 1125 Thüring von Lützelflüh donated land around modern Trub to St. Blaise Abbey in the Black Forest to establish a monk's cell. A few years later, between 1128 and 1130, he was able to separate Trub from St. Blaise and raise it to an independent Abbey. At that time it was dedicated to the Holy Cross. The Abbey's lands and rights, at that time it was recorded as monasterium de Trouba, were confirmed by Pope Innocent II and King Conrad III in 1139. Around 1224 it was known as the convent von Truob.
The secular and military rights over the monastery lands remained with the Lützelflüh family and their descendants, the Freiherren von Brandis until 1455. The rights were then sold to Kaspar von Scharnachtal who held them until his death in 1473, after which they transferred to the city of Bern. During the 13th century, the Abbey forged political ties with Bern and in 1286 its residents became citizens of the city.
The confirmation document of 1139 listed 40 properties that the Abbey owned, including 28 in the Emmental region and 7 in Oberaargau. The remaining five were more distant properties, two vineyards between Cressier and La Neuveville and farm houses in Därligen on Lake Thun, in Entlebuch, Canton of Lucerne and Otelfingen in Zürich. The Abbey buildings grew rapidly over the following years and a Romanesque church was built. Over the following centuries, the Abbey continued to receive or purchase property throughout western Switzerland. Several houses and places in these communities still bear the name Trub from when they were owned by the Abbey.
The village of Trub grew up around the Abbey and was under the low court of the Abbey. However, the high court was under the secular Kyburgs. The Abbey provided chaplains and lay priests to many communities within the Emmental, which they recruited from the local farmers. A total of 24 abbots are known to have presided over the Abbey. In the early years of the Abbey, these abbots came from the minor nobility or the Ministerialis (unfree knights in the service of a feudal overlord) class. After 1400, this changed and the abbots were now former farmers or livestock herders.
In 1414 the mostly wooden Abbey was almost totally destroyed in a fire. It was rebuilt in stone, but in 1501 large parts were destroyed again in a fire. In 1528 Bern accepted the new faith of the Protestant Reformation and secularized all the monasteries in their territory. Most of the Abbey library and its treasures did not survive the two fires and the Reformation. The last abbot of Trub, Heinrich Ruoff, and the remaining nine members residents received a stipend from the Canton to leave the Abbey. The church was converted into a Swiss Reformed parish church. The east and west wings of the Abbey gradually fell into disrepair and were demolished. The south wing was bought by a local farmer and converted into a farm house. The coat of arms of the Abbey became the coat of arms for the municipality of Trub.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.