The first reference to a castle in the village of Penne dates from 825 AD and its first known señor was Geoffroi, mentioned in 1096 in documents related to Raymond, Count of Toulouse. Throughout the Middle Ages (5th to 15th centuries) the site of Penne was of military strategic importance, being situated on the borders of the provinces of Albigeois, Quercy and Rouergue, with its fortress perched atop a cliff overlooking the River Aveyron.
The castle remained in use, seeing repeated conflicts, such as the Hundred Years War(1337-1453) between England and France, and the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) between Protestants and Roman Catholics during which it was partly destroyed. It was then abandoned for approximately 400 years.
The remains of the castle include the dungeon, the ramparts and a chapel.References:
The Church of St Eustace was built between 1532-1632. St Eustace"s is considered a masterpiece of late Gothic architecture. The church’s reputation was strong enough of the time for it to be chosen as the location for a young Louis XIV to receive communion. Mozart also chose the sanctuary as the location for his mother’s funeral. Among those baptised here as children were Richelieu, Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, future Madame de Pompadour and Molière, who was also married here in the 17th century. The last rites for Anne of Austria, Turenne and Mirabeau were pronounced within its walls. Marie de Gournay is buried there.
The origins of Saint Eustache date back to 13th century. The church became a parish church in 1223, thanks to a man named Jean Alais who achieved this by taxing the baskets of fish sold nearby, as granted by King Philip Augustus. To thank such divine generosity, Alais constructed a chapel dedicated to Sainte-Agnès, a Roman martyr.