Prehistoric and archaeological sites in Spain

Cales Coves Necropolis

Cales Coves is an emblematic and spectacular prehistoric necropolis, both for its setting and for the large number of tombs in it. They take the form of a set of cavities excavated from the rock walls of the ravines and coastal cliff faces (about 90 altogether), used by local communities to bury their dead. Several types of cave have been documented. The necropolis was used for about 1000 years, from the 11th century BCE ...
Founded: 11th century BCE | Location: Illes Balears, Spain

Baños de Tenerías

The Baños de Tenerías were a public bath. It is believed that these were built at the beginning of the 11th century, when Spain was under Moorish rule, and was one of the six Arab baths in the city. These offered the possibility of make purification baths for access to the Al-Dabbagin Mosque (the current church iglesia de San Sebastián). It is divided into the living room bayt al-mash, the latrines, the cold room ...
Founded: 11th century | Location: Toledo, Spain

Talatí de Dalt

Talatí de Dalt is one of the Menorca's most significant prehistoric settlements. It consists of various monuments: an elliptical-shaped conical talaiot, a taula enclosure, an area with dwellings and some caves.The taula enclosure at Talatí de Dalt is one of the largest and most beautiful in Menorca. It has an unusual aspec, as the pillar and its capital are leaning against the side edge of the centre T, probably because ...
Founded: 850 BCE | Location: Mahón, Spain

Castro de Coaña

Situated on the left bank of the Navia Estuary, Castro de Coaña is a hilltop settlement (4th Century BC) surrounded by walls and accessed from the south. The main defensive structure is located precisely in the south and consists of a wide ditch dug into the slaty subsoil finished off by a wall. Inside, the settlement is divided into several sectors. It has a diamond shape in which the three areas can be clearly disting ...
Founded: 400-300 BCE | Location: Coaña, Spain

Aquis Querquennis

Aquis Querquennis is the ruins of a Roman military camp sit along a flooded section of a river. The construction of the barracks dates back to the reign of Vespasian, around the year 75, when it was likely used as a base from which to defend newly built roads connecting other, larger roads in this remote province. The walls, arches and moat that form the foundations of this former Roman military camp can sometimes be fou ...
Founded: c. 75 AD | Location: Ourense, Spain

Roman Circus

The Roman Circus of Toledo was built during the 1st century, during the mandate of the emperor Augustus or the emperor Tiberius. Possibly, its construction was included within the plan that the emperor undertook by all the Empire to endow to all the great cities of public buildings, like thermaes, theaters, amphitheaters, or forums, with the aim of promoting the Romanization in these zones. In particular, the ...
Founded: 0-100 AD | Location: Toledo, Spain

Castro de Viladonga

The archaeological and museum complex of Viladonga occupies the peak of a mountain from the visitor can behold the spectacular view of the Terra Chá (Flat Land) of Lugo and the mountain chains of Monciro, Pradairo and Meira. It is located in Castro de Rei. The archaeological importance and the historical interest of the Castro de Viladonga were showcased after excavations initiated in 1971, due to the monumentality and ...
Founded: 2nd century AD | Location: Castro de Rei, Spain

Cercadilla

The archaeological site of Cercadilla includes a complete chronological sequence from the 3rd to 12th centuries. The most relevant monument is a Roman palace dated between the end of the 3rd century and the beginning of the 4th century AD. It is believed that it was the headquarters of the Emperor Maximiano Herculeo. A bathtub with mural paintings has been found in the thermal zone of the palace. Regarding the occupation ...
Founded: 3rd century AD | Location: Córdoba, Spain

Roman Fish Salting Factory

The Roman fish salting factory (Factoría romana de salazones) was a salting factory established on the seafront of Algeciras by the Romans. It belonged to the fishing village of San Nicolás, part of what was called Caetaria.
Founded: 0-100 AD | Location: Algeciras, Spain

Castro of San Cibrao de Las

San Cibrao de Las hill fort (Castro de San Cibrao de Las) is a hill fort of the so-called castro culture. Rather than a single castle, it encompasses an entire fortified town or village. The place was inhabited from the second century BC to the second century AD. It flourished during the first century, at the beginning of Roman rule in Galicia. The ruins are located on a 473-metre-high hill, covering an area 384 m long ...
Founded: 2nd century BCE | Location: San Amaro, Spain

Santa Eulalia de Bóveda

Santa Eulalia de Bóveda was a worship or religious building in Roman times. Probably it belongs to the third and fourth centuries AD although it was renovated and re-used in later times. It is near Lugo (Lucus Augusti) in a turning from the road to Friol. The road to Lucus Augusti and Bracara Augusta was very close to the group of Bóveda in ancient times. It had two floors. The lower one is kept relatively complete an ...
Founded: 3rd century AD | Location: Bóveda de Mera, Spain

Numantia

Numantia was an ancient Celtiberian settlement. It was an Iron Age hill fort, which controlled a crossing of the river Duero. Numantia is famous for its role in the Celtiberian Wars. In the year 153 BC Numantia experienced its first serious conflict with Rome. After 20 years of hostilities, in the year 133 BC the Roman Senate gave Scipio Aemilianus Africanus the task of destroying Numantia. He laid siege to the ...
Founded: 6th century BC | Location: Garray, Spain

Cave of Altamira

The Cave of Altamira is located near the historic town of Santillana del Mar. It is renowned for prehistoric parietal cave art featuring charcoal drawings and polychrome paintings of contemporary local fauna and human hands. The earliest paintings were applied during the Upper Paleolithic, around 36,000 years ago. Because of their deep galleries, isolated from external climatic influences, these caves are particularly we ...
Founded: 36,000 BCE | Location: Santillana del Mar, Spain

Chao Samartín

Chao Samartín is a Castro located in the municipality of Grandas. It was founded in the Bronze Age, around the year 800 BCE. The beginnings of this fortified village lay toward the end of the Bronze Age (about 3,000 years ago); the first defenses are from this period, a moat and a palisade that surround a sacred enclosure with an entrance preceded by some large rocks. Inside a building was located that is quite la ...
Founded: 800 BCE | Location: Grandas, Spain

Acinipo

Acinipo was a city about 20 kilometers from Ronda, believed to have been founded by retired soldiers from the Roman legions more than 2,000 years ago. The remaining ruins include a Roman theater still in use today. Some historians assert that Acinipo was created after the battle of Munda (45 BC), fought between the armies of Julius Caesar and the army of Pompey"s two sons, Gnaeus and Sextus. To Caesar, Munda ...
Founded: 45 BCE | Location: Ronda, Spain

Trepucó Talayotic Settlement

The settlement of Trepucó is one of the largest on Menorca, covering an area of around 49,240 square metres. Today, only a small part of the site can still be seen, the two oldest buildings, the talaiots (1000-700 BCE). Other remains include parts of the wall, two square towers on the west wall, the taula enclosure and traces of dwellings from the post-Talayotic period (650-123 BCE).The taula enclosure is one of the bigg ...
Founded: 1000 BCE | Location: Mahón, Spain

Dolmen de Axeitos

Dolmen de Axeitos is a prehistoric megalithic dolmen just to the northwest of the village Axeitos on the Barbanza Peninsula. It is dated to 3600-4000 BC.
Founded: 4000-3600 BCE | Location: Ribeira, Spain

Río Verde Roman Villa

The ancient site at Rio Verde was once part of the great Roman city of Cilniana. It now houses the remains of a late 1st century AD Roman villa. Sadly all that is left is the floor and a small portion of the walls of the villa. However, fortunately for us it is a floor unlike any other - embellished with black and white mosaic tiles in patterns never before seen in a Roman Villa, and intricately encased by a border of the ...
Founded: 0-100 AD | Location: Marbella, Spain

Ses Païsses

Ses Païsses is a Bronze Age talayotic settlement in northeastern Majorca. It is one of the most important and best-preserved prehistoric sites in the Balearic Islands, although it is largely overgrown with woodland, mainly Quercus ilex (holm oak), making it impossible to see the site as a whole. The Ses Païsses settlement is thought to have begun as a cylindrical talaiot, or 'turriform', built during t ...
Founded: 900-800 BCE | Location: Artà, Spain

The Binicodrell de Darrera talayots

According to ancient texts, Binicodrell was a large Talayotic period settlement (1000-700 B.C.). Today, only two talayots remain, of which the northern one is in a better condition; it has a zigzag shaped access ramp leading inside, although researchers disagree on whether it was built at the same time as the talayot. The southern talayot, on the other hand, is quite dilapidated.You can still find fragments of pottery on ...
Founded: 1000-700 BCE | Location: Es Migjorn Gran, Spain

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Palazzo Colonna

The Palazzo Colonna is a palatial block of buildings built in part over ruins of an old Roman Serapeum, and has belonged to the prestigious Colonna family for over twenty generations.

The first part of the palace dates from the 13th century, and tradition holds that the building hosted Dante in his visit to Rome. The first documentary mention notes that the property hosted Cardinal Giovanni and Giacomo Colonna in the 13th century. It was also home to Cardinal Oddone Colonna before he ascended to the papacy as Martin V (1417–1431).

With his passing, the palace was sacked during feuds, and the main property passed into the hands of the Della Rovere family. It returned to the Colonna family when Marcantonio I Colonna married Lucrezia Gara Franciotti Della Rovere, the niece of pope Julius II. The Colonna"s alliance to the Habsburg power, likely protected the palace from looting during the Sack of Rome (1527).

Starting with Filippo Colonna (1578–1639) many changes have refurbished and create a unitary complex around a central garden. Architects including Girolamo Rainaldi and Paolo Marucelli labored on specific projects. Only in the 17th and 18th centuries were the main facades completed. Much of this design was completed by Antonio del Grande (including the grand gallery), and Girolamo Fontana (decoration of gallery). In the 18th century, the long low facade designed by Nicola Michetti with later additions by Paolo Posi with taller corner blocks (facing Piazza Apostoli) was constructed recalls earlier structures resembling a fortification.

The main gallery (completed 1703) and the masterful Colonna art collection was acquired after 1650 by both the cardinal Girolamo I Colonna and his nephew the Connestabile Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna and includes works by Lorenzo Monaco, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Palma the Elder, Salviati, Bronzino, Tintoretto, Pietro da Cortona, Annibale Carracci (painting of The Beaneater), Guercino, Francesco Albani, Muziano and Guido Reni. Ceiling frescoes by Filippo Gherardi, Giovanni Coli, Sebastiano Ricci, and Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari celebrate the role of Marcantonio II Colonna in the battle of Lepanto (1571). The gallery is open to the public on Saturday mornings.

The older wing of the complex known as the Princess Isabelle"s apartments, but once housing Martin V"s library and palace, contains frescoes by Pinturicchio, Antonio Tempesta, Crescenzio Onofri, Giacinto Gimignani, and Carlo Cesi. It contains a collection of landscapes and genre scenes by painters like Gaspard Dughet, Caspar Van Wittel (Vanvitelli), and Jan Brueghel the Elder.

Along with the possessions of the Doria-Pamphilij and Pallavacini-Rospigliosi families, this is one of the largest private art collections in Rome.