Monastery of San Pedro de Rocas, which is unique due to the fact that it is excavated in the natural rock, displays none of the delicate Gothic structures nor the harmonious proportions of the Renaissance style. It is a very ancient, rough, almost primitive construction, which witnessed the first hermit settlements in the area.
The historical value of San Pedro de Rocas (St. Peter of the Rocks) is more anthropological than aesthetic.The presence of the first inhabitants here can be traced back to the year 573. According to the inscriptions on its foundation tablet, which is kept at the Provincial Archaeological Museum, its founders were seven men who chose this beautiful spot as a retreat to lead a life of prayer.
Later, in the 9th century, the place was rediscovered by the Knight Gemodus during a hunting trip. He settled there and was appointed Abbot by his colleagues. Legend or not, the fact is that there is proof of the existence of Gemodus, as shown in the privilege granted to Rocas by Alfonso V in 1007.
In later centuries this monastery, which was never very wealthy nor had a great number of inhabitants, came under the jurisdiction of those of Santo Estevo de Ribas de Sil and San Salvador de Celanova.
The monastery's church, which dates back to the 6th century, is one of the oldest known Christian temples. Its three naves were excavated in the rock. The ceiling of the central nave has an opening that allows light in from the outside. A pilaster serves as the altar. On the wall of the chapel to the left, a small area of 5 x 3.40 m, there is a hollow that supposedly contained the tomb of Gemodus. There, a fresco mural painting was discovered, dating from between 1175 and 1200, with images of the Apostles and a map of the world.
We can also see sculptured sepulchres with images of recumbent figures. On the floor of the church and the atrium there are numerous tombs excavated in the rock. The church was later expanded with the addition of a nave. The bell tower, designed by Gonzalo de Penalva in the 15th century, is located on the upper part of an enormous rock formation almost 20 m high, from which the place takes its name.An arch serves as access to a small area, used until recently as parish cemetery. It has a quadrangular layout and is enclosed by a wall. From here a path descends down the mountainside to the San Bieito Fountain, also excavated in the rock.References:
The Petersberg Citadel is one of the largest extant early-modern citadels in Europe and covers the whole north-western part of the Erfurt city centre. It was built after 1665 on Petersberg hill and was in military use until 1963. It dates from a time when Erfurt was ruled by the Electors of Mainz and is a unique example of the European style of fortress construction. Beneath the citadel is an underground maze of passageways that can be visited on guided tours organised by Erfurt Tourist Office.
The citadel was originally built on the site of a medieval Benedictine Monastery and the earliest parts of the complex date from the 12th century. Erfurt has also been ruled by Sweden, Prussia, Napoleon, the German Empire, the Nazis, and post-World War II Soviet occupying forces, and it was part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). All of these regimes used Petersberg Citadel and had an influence on its development. The baroque fortress was in military use until 1963. Since German reunification in 1990, the citadel has undergone significant restoration and it is now open to the public as a historic site.