Kaunas Fortress

Kaunas, Lithuania

The Kaunas Fortress was a military project implemented by Russian government. In 1879 Russian Emperor Alexander II accepted a suggestion to build military fortress in Kaunas in order to defense the western border of Russian Empire from German invasion. In the general plan of fortifications there were many objects intended to be built like a surround of 7 fortresses and 9 interjacent artillery batteries, defensive centers, military train station, workshops, stores and many more.

Fortresses were built at the approaches to Kaunas city in distances of 2-2,5 km. The line of set fortresses formed almost a regular oval by 4000 workers annually. Total of 250 wooden and 200 stone buildings serving for military purposes were erected in the territory of Kaunas fortification. However, as building works were slower than modernization of technique, the Kaunas Fortress had to be modernized several times too. In 1912 the Kaunas Fortress had to be double widened, but a broke out of the First World War stopped the works. In the World War I (1915) an army of 90 000 soldiers was garrisoned in the Kaunas Fortress to sustain a siege of German military forces. After 11 days of siege, Germans finally smashed into the Kaunas Fortress. During the assault 4000 defenders and more than 4000 German soldiers died. 20 000 defenders were taken captive. More than 1300 various cannons, guns and military stores were taken by Germans.

After the First World War, some of fortifications were dismantled and the rest served for the troop and Kaunas city. During the Second World War Kaunas Fortress was not used for defensive purposes any more. The Sixth, the Seventh and the Ninth forts were used as concentration camps by German army. About 50,000 people were executed there, including more than 30,000 victims of the Holocaust.

In the postwar period Soviet occupants established military bases in most of these forts. The old buildings of fortification were not preserved as they were demolished and rebuilt. After Soviet military forces were pulled out, military bases located in forts were liquidated. As Kaunas city expanded, some of these forts got into territory of Kaunas city and were surrounded by living houses and city streets, interblending into an environment of Kaunas city.

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Details

Founded: 1879
Category: Castles and fortifications in Lithuania

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User Reviews

Justina Kasberaitė (9 months ago)
šventėm vaiko gimtadienį, vaikams patiko, nes erdvu, daug vietos lakstyti, buvo užsiimta su vaikais... aplinka nuvylė labai... trūksta higienos, pasenusi visa jų virtuvėlė, arbatinukai kalkėti ir jau atgyvenę, stalo įrankiai ir lėkštės nešvarios, teko viską patiems persivalyti... ieškant normalaus peilio, perėjus per visas spinteles rasta daug sutrinų ir limpančių įrankių, kurie matyt nejudinti metus laiko... perbraukus stalo paviršių su skuduriuku šviesiu, visas skuduriukas liko rudas... tualetų yra daug, bet visi baisūs, net šlykštu kur prisiliesti... vienam iš tualetų buvo visur pritaškyta skutimosi putų, ant grindų, kriauklių ir t.t. panaudotas tualetinis mėtėsi ant grindų... tualeto kraštai šū.... muziejaus erdvėse buvo mini virtuvėlė, joje taip pat kalnas nešvarių įrankių, lentelė su obuolio lupenom sudžiūvusiomis ir t.t... patalpose šalta, lyg bandyta šildyti, bet nesigavo...
fallout boy (10 months ago)
Buvo vaiko gimt.labai patiko
kestas 007 (17 months ago)
Verta apsilankyti daug yra ka pamatyti. Pagal dydi is Kaune esanciu 9 fortu uzima 2 vieta. Puikiai sutvarkyta aplinka. Pats muziejus nuolatos atnaujinamas yra daug ginklu (sautuvu, patranku, granatu ir t.t)., ivairios karines irangos. Kaina apsilankyti paciame muziejuje nera didele (vasario 16d. lankymas nemokamas).
Neda Davidavičiūtė (18 months ago)
Graži vietovė! Tai geriausiai iki šių dienų išlikęs dviejų pylimų fortas, puikiai atspindintis pirmąjį tvirtovės statybų etapą. Šiame forte išliko dalis autentiškų langų rėmų bei jų varčių, šaudmenų sandėlio vartų fragmentai, o forto tvarkybos metu aptikti autentiški interjero puošybos elementai, grindinys, šaudmenų sandėlių durų ir vartų furnitūra.
Paulius Urbonas (3 years ago)
Must see place
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