Hackfort Manor was originally a keep that was expanded into a castle in the 13th century. It was destroyed by Spanish troops in 1586 and rebuilt in 1600. It is one of the best preserved fortified stately homes in the province of Gelderland.
The most famous descendant of the Van Hackfort line was Berent (1475-1557). In 1502, he entered the service of the Duke of Guelders and even became commander and deputy to the duke. He also held various posts in the duchy; everything from sheriff to steward. At the time, the Duke of Guelders was at war with the Spanish Habsburg ruler and Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, in an attempt to protect his duchy from the Habsburgs. When the Duchy of Guelders finally lost its independence in 1543, Berent was among those who signed the treaty. Berent lived to the age of 80 and his tomb can still be seen in the church in Vorden.
In 1585, Spanish troops conquered the city of Zutphen and the region turned into a battleground. It was plundered and burned by friend and foe alike and during a failed attempt by the Maurice of Nassau’s Dutch States Army to win back Zutphen, Hackfort Castle was destroyed by the Spaniards. It wasn’t until 1591 that Prince Maurice managed to reclaim Zutphen so that the region could slowly start to recover.
In 1788, Hackfort Castle underwent substantial renovations. The old gate house and outbuildings were demolished and the canals were filled in. The castle was transformed into an 18th-century manor house. Today, only the two towers serve as reminders of the former castle. In 1981, Hackfort Manor passed to The Netherlands Natural Heritage Society (Natuurmonumenten) and the house, coach house and watermill have since been restored and opened to the public. Hackfort Manor’s lovely estate is open to the public as well and the natural heritage society is currently working hard to restore the gardens to their original condition.References:
Stavanger Cathedral is Norway's oldest cathedral. Bishop Reinald, who may have come from Winchester, is said to have started construction of the Cathedral around 1100. It was finished around 1150, and the city of Stavanger counts 1125 as its year of foundation. The Cathedral was consecrated to Swithin as its patron saint. Saint Swithun was an early Bishop of Winchester and subsequently patron saint of Winchester Cathedral. Stavanger was ravaged by fire in 1272, and the Cathedral suffered heavy damage. It was rebuilt under bishop Arne, and the Romanesque Cathedral was enlarged in the Gothic style.
In 1682, king Christian V decided to move Stavanger's episcopal seat to Kristiansand. However, on Stavanger's 800th anniversary in 1925, king Haakon VII instated Jacob Christian Petersen as Stavanger's first bishop in nearly 250 years.During a renovation in the 1860s, the Cathedral's exterior and interior was considerably altered. The stone walls were plastered, and the Cathedral lost much of its medieval looks. A major restoration led by Gerhard Fischer in 1939-1964 partly reversed those changes. The latest major restoration of the Cathedral was conducted in 1999. Andrew Lawrenceson Smith is famous for his works here.