Nearly 200 m above the Mosel river next to Pommern and Karden lays the high plateau of the Martberg. Its name still reminds you of the celtic-roman god Lenus-Mars who has been worshipped here in ancient times.
In the celtic period, around 100 BC, the Martberg was a central town an oppidum of the local celtic tribe called Treveri. According to current research the plateau of 45 ha was densly settled with small houses made of wood and clay. The settlement was surrounded by a wall constructed out of timber and stones. The evidence of coinage, handicraft and many imported goods emphasize the importance of the settlement in these times.
In the central area of the mountain archaeologists found a sanctuary of several celtic-roman temples which date from the 1st century BC to the 4th century AD. The sanctuary was surrounded by a large rectangular collonade which has been 60 to 70 m. In the center stood the main temple built in the typical celtic-roman style. It had a central square building called cella and a surrounding roofed verandah with stone pillars. The cella was the most important part of the temple because there was the god’s statue placed. Next to the central temple four smaller temples were discovered built in the same way as the main temple. In the sanctuary archaeologists found large quantities of offerings. The believers offered more than 10.000 coins, hundreds of fibulas, weapons as well as thousands of miniature ceramic vessels to their gods. In the course of the christianisation the sanctuary was abandoned after 400 AD. The religious center moved from the Martberg to Karden where an early christian community was established.
Since the year of 2006 AD it is possible to visit the celtic-roman sanctuary again. The major temple with its impressive wall paintings and one minor temple are reconstructed completely. Two other temples and the surrounding wall are rebuilt partly. Furthermore you can see some houses built in the way of the celtic period. Many of the objects from the Martberg and 2000 years of the history of Karden can be seen in the Stiftsmuseum of Treis-Karden. The museum is located next to the church of Karden.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.