Spandau Citadel is one of the most important and best-preserved Renaissance fortresses in Europe. In the 16th century, developments in weaponry rendered older castles useless. Thus, Kurfürst Joachim II ordered his fortification in Spandau to be constructed as a fortress in the ‘new Italian style.’ The fortress was laid out as a rectangle of curtains (fortress walls) with bastions, entirely encircled by water. The distance between the top of each bastion is about 300 meters. Around 1680, during the time of Friedrich Wilhelm, the segment gable was added to adorn the 16th century gatehouse. In its centre is displayed the Brandenburg coat of arms composed of twenty-seven fields. After Kurfürst Friedrich III. claimed the royal title on January 18, 1701, he had the Kurhut (traditional hat of German princes) above the coat of arms replaced by the royal crown. In 1813 Prussian artillery bombarded the citadel in an attempt to recapture it from Napoleon’s troops. The gatehouse was severely damaged, and in 1839 it was reconstructed in the neo-classical style. Passage through the so-called Commander`s House, today home to the permanent exhibition about the castle and citadel, leads visitors to the Julius Tower.
The master builders Chiaramella and Lynar incorporated two buildings from the medieval Castle Spandau into the construction of the fortress: the 13th century Julius Tower and the Palas from the 15th century. The Tower, thirty meters high, offers a splendid look-out point. Originally built for residence and defence, its up to 3,60 meters thick walls were used after 1871 to shelter the ‘Reichskriegsschatz,’ the reparations indemnity paid by the French after the Franco-Prussian War.
Archaeological work has revealed that the medieval Ascanian castle had its own, even earlier predecessors. Remnants of a Slavic fortification from around 1050 were discovered, including sections of a wood-earth wall. This structure, as well as the stone foundation of the 15th century castle wall, are presented in situ in the West Curtain.
During the Third Reich, the Citadel was a restricted military zone for the army’s gas-defence laboratories. Around 300 employees worked not only on poisonous defence gas, but also on developing chemical weapons. Evidence of lasting effects prompted intensive police searches for chemical residues between 1988 and 1992, considerably delaying the restoration of the Citadel.
After the Second World War, the Citadel was used for a variety of purposes - although, contrary to popular legend, Rudolf Hess was never imprisoned here. Today the fortress embraces a purely cultural function. Concerts and large art and historical exhibitions occupy its public spaces. The former Arsenal houses the Museum of Spandau City History, while the central courtyard frequently hosts large events and open air concerts. The Bastion Kronprinz holds exhibition spaces and the Youth Art School www.kunstbastion.de. Artists, craftsmen and a puppet theatre are established in House 4.References:
Lübeck Cathedral is a large brick-built Lutheran cathedral in Lübeck, Germany and part of the Lübeck UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1173 Henry the Lion founded the cathedral to serve the Diocese of Lübeck, after the transfer in 1160 of the bishop's seat from Oldenburg in Holstein under bishop Gerold. The then Romanesque cathedral was completed around 1230, but between 1266 and 1335 it was converted into a Gothic-style building with side-aisles raised to the same height as the main aisle.
On the night of Palm Sunday (28–29 March) 1942 a Royal Air Force bombing raid destroyed a fifth of the town centre. Several bombs fell in the area around the church, causing the eastern vault of the quire to collapse and destroying the altar which dated from 1696. A fire from the neighbouring cathedral museum spread to the truss of the cathedral, and around noon on Palm Sunday the towers collapsed. An Arp Schnitger organ was lost in the flames. Nevertheless, a relatively large portion of the internal fittings was saved, including the cross and almost all of the medieval polyptychs. In 1946 a further collapse, of the gable of the north transept, destroyed the vestibule almost completely.
Reconstruction of the cathedral took several decades, as greater priority was given to the rebuilding of the Marienkirche. Work was completed only in 1982.
The cathedral is unique in that at 105 m, it is shorter than the tallest church in the city. This is the consequence of a power struggle between the church and the guilds.
The 17 m crucifix is the work of the Lübeck artist Bernt Notke. It was commissioned by the bishop of Lübeck, Albert II. Krummendiek, and erected in 1477. The carvings which decorate the rood screen are also by Notke.
Since the war, the famous altar of Hans Memling has been in the medieval collection of the St. Annen Museum, but notable polyptychs remain in the cathedral.
In the funeral chapels of the southern aisle are Baroque-era memorials by the Flemish sculptor Thomas Quellinus.