The Fertőrákos Mithraeum is a temple to the Roman god Mithras at Fertőrákos in Hungary. The temple (known as a mithraeum), follows a typical plan of a narthex followed by the shrine proper that consists of a sunken central nave with podium benches on either side.
It was discovered by chance by a stonemason called György Malleschitz in 1866 who undertook the initial clearance of the site. It attracted a great deal of interest from local scholars and a restoration of the stone vault of the shrine was funded by a local magistrate (the first attempt at reconstruction at any archaeological site in Hungary). This roof, however, was later demolished and the present cover building erected in the 1990s following the excavations of 1990–1991. The mithraeum is currently open to the public.
Two altars refer to people from Carnuntum and they seem to have been the impetus behind the construction of the temple. Its construction can roughly be dated to the beginning of the 3rd century AD. Trapeziodal in shape as the north end is wider than the south (5.50 m wide compared to 3.65 m), the shrine is 5.50 m long. It is orientated north to south, with the southern and eastern sides of the shrine both hollowed out of the natural rock and the northern and western sides being built in stone. Four steps lead down into the central aisle (nave) of the shrine which was 80 cm below the level of the pronaos and the two flanking side benches which were all on ground level. The tauroctony sculpture was carved into the rock face. Three altars were also found on the site. Two were dedicated by Septimius Justianus, a custodes armorum (an soldier in charge of the armoury) of Legio XIIII Gemina. The second was dedicated by Julius Saturninus, a politician from the colony.References:
Czocha Castle is located on the Lake Leśnia, what is now the Polish part of Upper Lusatia. Czocha castle was built on gneiss rock, and its oldest part is the keep, to which housing structures were later added.
Czocha Castle began as a stronghold, on the Czech-Lusatian border. Its construction was ordered by Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, in the middle of the 13th century (1241–1247). In 1253 castle was handed over to Konrad von Wallhausen, Bishop of Meissen. In 1319 the complex became part of the dukedom of Henry I of Jawor, and after his death, it was taken over by another Silesian prince, Bolko II the Small, and his wife Agnieszka. Origin of the stone castle dates back to 1329.
In the mid-14th century, Czocha Castle was annexed by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia. Then, between 1389 and 1453, it belonged to the noble families of von Dohn and von Kluks. Reinforced, the complex was besieged by the Hussites in the early 15th century, who captured it in 1427, and remained in the castle for unknown time (see Hussite Wars). In 1453, the castle was purchased by the family of von Nostitz, who owned it for 250 years, making several changes through remodelling projects in 1525 and 1611. Czocha's walls were strengthened and reinforced, which thwarted a Swedish siege of the complex during the Thirty Years War. In 1703, the castle was purchased by Jan Hartwig von Uechtritz, influential courtier of Augustus II the Strong. On August 17, 1793, the whole complex burned in a fire.
In 1909, Czocha was bought by a cigar manufacturer from Dresden, Ernst Gutschow, who ordered major remodelling, carried out by Berlin architect Bodo Ebhardt, based on a 1703 painting of the castle. Gutschow, who was close to the Russian Imperial Court and hosted several White emigres in Czocha, lived in the castle until March 1945. Upon leaving, he packed up the most valuable possessions and moved them out.
After World War II, the castle was ransacked several times, both by soldiers of the Red Army, and Polish thieves, who came to the so-called Recovered Territories from central and eastern part of the country. Pieces of furniture and other goods were stolen, and in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the castle was home to refugees from Greece. In 1952, Czocha was taken over by the Polish Army. Used as a military vacation resort, it was erased from official maps. The castle has been open to the public since September 1996 as a hotel and conference centre. The complex was featured in several movies and television series. Recently, the castle has been used as the setting of the College of Wizardry, a live action role-playing game (LARP) that takes place in their own universe and can be compared to Harry Potter.