The Tropsztyn Castle was probably built in the early 13th century by the Ośmioróg family. It was first mentioned in 1231, and remained in the hands of the family for 300 years. In 1535, following a royal order, Tropsztyn was handed to the castellan of Sandomierz, Piotr Kmita. Some time in the second half of the 16th century, it probably became the seat of highwaymen, as it was partially destroyed in 1574 by the owners of Rożnów, due to the “assaults, organized from the castle”. By 1608, Tropsztyn, which belonged to the Zborowski family, already was described as a ruin.
First archaeological works were carried out here in 1863 by a Nowy Sącz historian Szczęsny Morawski. In 1970, it was purchased by Andrzej Benesz, and Tropsztyn was reconstructed in 1993. Now the castle is open to visitors in July and August. According to a legend, an Inca treasure is hidden somewhere in Tropsztyn, as its late 18th century owner, Sebastian Berzewiczy, went to Spanish Peru, where he married an Incan princess, and his ancestors returned to Poland with the treasure.References:
Sirmione castle was built near the end of the 12th century as part of a defensive network surrounding Verona. The castle was maintained and extended first as part of the Veronese protection against their rivals in Milan and later under the control of the Venetian inland empire. The massive fortress is totally surrounded by water and has an inner porch which houses a Roman and Medieval lapidary. From the drawbridge, a staircase leads to the walkways above the walls, providing a marvellous view of the harbour that once sheltered the Scaliger fleet. The doors were fitted with a variety of locking systems, including a drawbridge for horses, carriages and pedestrians, a metal grate and, more recently, double hinged doors. Venice conquered Sirmione in 1405, immediately adopting provisions to render the fortress even more secure, fortifying its outer walls and widening the harbour.
Thanks to its strategical geographical location as a border outpost, Sirmione became a crucial defence and control garrison for the ruling nobles, retaining this function until the 16th century, when its role was taken up by Peschiera del Garda.