It is not known exactly when the Tiefburg castle was built or by whom. It is assumed that it was built in the 12th century, possibly by the Abbey of Lorsch or the Count Palatinates of the Rhine (later known as the Prince Electors of the Palatinate), who set up residence in nearby Heidelberg around this time. It is also possible that the castle had its origins in a fortiied estate. The knights of Handschuhsheim who lived in the Tiefburg were initially unfree knights, known as ministeriales, in the service of the Abbey of Lorsch, and later on vassals of the Prince Electors of the Palatinate. The dynasty died out when the last knight of Handschuhsheim, Johannes (Hans) V., died aged 16 on 31st December 1600 from injuries sustained in a duel. Through inheritance, the Tiefburg became the property of the barons of Helmstatt (who became counts of Helmstatt in the 18th century).
Tiefburg was badly damaged in the Thirty Years‘ War. In 1689 it fell victim to the War of the Palatine Succession and became uninhabitable, whereupon the Helmstatts built a new residence in the immediate vicinity. The original gate of this new residence can still be seen to the east of the square in front of the Tiefburg. Count Raban von Helmstatt had the Tiefburg restored in the years 1910 to 1913.References:
Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River. The fortress consists of two walled sections on a steep hill between the sulphur baths and the botanical gardens of Tbilisi. On the lower court there is the recently restored St Nicholas church. Newly built in 1996–1997, it replaces the original 13th-century church that was destroyed in a fire. The new church is of 'prescribed cross' type, having doors on three sides. The internal part of the church is decorated with the frescos showing scenes both from the Bible and history of Georgia.
The fortress was established in the 4th century and it was a Persian citadel. It was considerably expanded by the Umayyads in the 7th century and later, by king David the Builder (1089–1125). Most of extant fortifications date from the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1827, parts of the fortress were damaged by an earthquake and demolished.