Ardchattan Priory was established in 1230 or 1231 by an obscure order of monks from France, the Valliscaulians. They followed a strict form of monastic rule, with emphasis more on the ascetic religious life than on manual work. Houses were limited to no more than 20 brothers, and the monks’ livelihood depended on rents and teinds (tithes) from endowments. Their church, in common with all Valliscaulian houses, was dedicated to St Mary the Virgin and St John the Baptist.
The original priory was rebuilt in the 15th century, when the monks’ choir was extended and a new refectory (dining hall) constructed. Monastic life eventually came to an end with the Protestant Reformation of 1560. The buildings and endowments were appropriated by John Campbell, later bishop of the Isles, and have remained with the Clan Campbell ever since.
The priory was founded by Duncan MacDougall, Lord of Lorn and builder of Dunstaffnage Castle near Oban. At this time kings of Scotland and Norway were fighting for control of Argyll and the Inner Hebrides. Duncan may have invited the Valliscaulians to Ardchattan to ingratiate himself with the Scottish king, Alexander II. Alexander had recently established a monastery for this obscure order at Pluscarden, near Elgin. The Valliscaulians, whose mother house was in the Val des Choux in Burgundy, only ever set up daughter houses outside France in Germany and Scotland. The third Valliscaulian house in Scotland was Beauly, west of Inverness, founded by the Bisset family.
The priory was dominated by the MacDougalls throughout most of its existence. Indeed, by the end of the 15th century, the position of prior was monopolised by the family. But in 1506 the last MacDougall prior, Eugenius (Eogan), was deposed. The new prior, Duncan MacArthur, attempted in vain to revive the zeal of the founding brethren. In 1538 there were just six monks in residence, and by the Reformation in 1560 a mere three.
In 1602, Archibald Campbell, son of Bishop John Campbell, began the process of converting the old priory into a private house. While the church remained in use as the parish kirk until 1732, the monks’ cloister was converted into a house. The old refectory is still the family dining room.
Among the numerous fine grave markers and carved stones on display is the MacDougall Cross. Commissioned by Prior Eugenius MacDougall in 1500, it was carved by John Ó Brolchán, a stone-carver from Iona. It is one of the few examples of West Highland carving recording the sculptor’s name. The cross bears a crucifixion scene on one side and an image of the Virgin and Child on the other.References:
The Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc is a Baroque monument built in 1716–1754 in honour of God. The main purpose was a spectacular celebration of Catholic Church and faith, partly caused by feeling of gratitude for ending a plague, which struck Moravia between 1713 and 1715. The column was also understood to be an expression of local patriotism, since all artists and master craftsmen working on this monument were Olomouc citizens, and almost all depicted saints were connected with the city of Olomouc in some way. The column is the biggest Baroque sculptural group in the Czech Republic. In 2000 it was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list.
The column is dominated by gilded copper sculptures of the Holy Trinity accompanied by the Archangel Gabriel on the top and the Assumption of the Virgin beneath it.
The base of the column, in three levels, is surrounded by 18 more stone sculptures of saints and 14 reliefs in elaborate cartouches. At the uppermost stage are saints connected with Jesus’ earth life – his mother’s parents St. Anne and St. Joachim, his foster-father St. Joseph, and St. John the Baptist, who was preparing his coming – who are accompanied by St. Lawrence and St. Jerome, saints to whom the chapel in the Olomouc town hall was dedicated. Three reliefs represent the Three theological virtues Faith, Hope, and Love.
Below them, the second stage is dedicated to Moravian saints St. Cyril and St. Methodius, who came to Great Moravia to spread Christianity in 863, St. Blaise, in whose name one of the main Olomouc churches is consecrated, and patrons of neighbouring Bohemia St. Adalbert of Prague and St. John of Nepomuk, whose following was very strong there as well.
In the lowest stage one can see the figures of an Austrian patron St. Maurice and a Bohemian patron St. Wenceslas, in whose names two important Olomouc churches were consecrated, another Austrian patron St. Florian, who was also viewed as a protector against various disasters, especially fire, St. John of Capistrano, who used to preach in Olomouc, St. Anthony of Padua, a member of the Franciscan Order, which owned an important monastery in Olomouc, and St. Aloysius Gonzaga, a patron of students. His sculpture showed that Olomouc was very proud of its university. Reliefs of all twelve apostles are placed among these sculptures.
The column also houses a small chapel inside with reliefs depicting Cain's offering from his crop, Abel's offering of firstlings of his flock, Noah's first burnt offering after the Flood, Abraham's offering of Isaac and of a lamb, and Jesus' death. The cities of Jerusalem and Olomouc can be seen in the background of the last mentioned relief.