Ardchattan Priory was established in 1230 or 1231 by an obscure order of monks from France, the Valliscaulians. They followed a strict form of monastic rule, with emphasis more on the ascetic religious life than on manual work. Houses were limited to no more than 20 brothers, and the monks’ livelihood depended on rents and teinds (tithes) from endowments. Their church, in common with all Valliscaulian houses, was dedicated to St Mary the Virgin and St John the Baptist.
The original priory was rebuilt in the 15th century, when the monks’ choir was extended and a new refectory (dining hall) constructed. Monastic life eventually came to an end with the Protestant Reformation of 1560. The buildings and endowments were appropriated by John Campbell, later bishop of the Isles, and have remained with the Clan Campbell ever since.
The priory was founded by Duncan MacDougall, Lord of Lorn and builder of Dunstaffnage Castle near Oban. At this time kings of Scotland and Norway were fighting for control of Argyll and the Inner Hebrides. Duncan may have invited the Valliscaulians to Ardchattan to ingratiate himself with the Scottish king, Alexander II. Alexander had recently established a monastery for this obscure order at Pluscarden, near Elgin. The Valliscaulians, whose mother house was in the Val des Choux in Burgundy, only ever set up daughter houses outside France in Germany and Scotland. The third Valliscaulian house in Scotland was Beauly, west of Inverness, founded by the Bisset family.
The priory was dominated by the MacDougalls throughout most of its existence. Indeed, by the end of the 15th century, the position of prior was monopolised by the family. But in 1506 the last MacDougall prior, Eugenius (Eogan), was deposed. The new prior, Duncan MacArthur, attempted in vain to revive the zeal of the founding brethren. In 1538 there were just six monks in residence, and by the Reformation in 1560 a mere three.
In 1602, Archibald Campbell, son of Bishop John Campbell, began the process of converting the old priory into a private house. While the church remained in use as the parish kirk until 1732, the monks’ cloister was converted into a house. The old refectory is still the family dining room.
Among the numerous fine grave markers and carved stones on display is the MacDougall Cross. Commissioned by Prior Eugenius MacDougall in 1500, it was carved by John Ó Brolchán, a stone-carver from Iona. It is one of the few examples of West Highland carving recording the sculptor’s name. The cross bears a crucifixion scene on one side and an image of the Virgin and Child on the other.References:
The Palazzo Colonna is a palatial block of buildings built in part over ruins of an old Roman Serapeum, and has belonged to the prestigious Colonna family for over twenty generations.
The first part of the palace dates from the 13th century, and tradition holds that the building hosted Dante in his visit to Rome. The first documentary mention notes that the property hosted Cardinal Giovanni and Giacomo Colonna in the 13th century. It was also home to Cardinal Oddone Colonna before he ascended to the papacy as Martin V (1417–1431).
With his passing, the palace was sacked during feuds, and the main property passed into the hands of the Della Rovere family. It returned to the Colonna family when Marcantonio I Colonna married Lucrezia Gara Franciotti Della Rovere, the niece of pope Julius II. The Colonna"s alliance to the Habsburg power, likely protected the palace from looting during the Sack of Rome (1527).
Starting with Filippo Colonna (1578–1639) many changes have refurbished and create a unitary complex around a central garden. Architects including Girolamo Rainaldi and Paolo Marucelli labored on specific projects. Only in the 17th and 18th centuries were the main facades completed. Much of this design was completed by Antonio del Grande (including the grand gallery), and Girolamo Fontana (decoration of gallery). In the 18th century, the long low facade designed by Nicola Michetti with later additions by Paolo Posi with taller corner blocks (facing Piazza Apostoli) was constructed recalls earlier structures resembling a fortification.
The main gallery (completed 1703) and the masterful Colonna art collection was acquired after 1650 by both the cardinal Girolamo I Colonna and his nephew the Connestabile Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna and includes works by Lorenzo Monaco, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Palma the Elder, Salviati, Bronzino, Tintoretto, Pietro da Cortona, Annibale Carracci (painting of The Beaneater), Guercino, Francesco Albani, Muziano and Guido Reni. Ceiling frescoes by Filippo Gherardi, Giovanni Coli, Sebastiano Ricci, and Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari celebrate the role of Marcantonio II Colonna in the battle of Lepanto (1571). The gallery is open to the public on Saturday mornings.
The older wing of the complex known as the Princess Isabelle"s apartments, but once housing Martin V"s library and palace, contains frescoes by Pinturicchio, Antonio Tempesta, Crescenzio Onofri, Giacinto Gimignani, and Carlo Cesi. It contains a collection of landscapes and genre scenes by painters like Gaspard Dughet, Caspar Van Wittel (Vanvitelli), and Jan Brueghel the Elder.
Along with the possessions of the Doria-Pamphilij and Pallavacini-Rospigliosi families, this is one of the largest private art collections in Rome.