Ardchattan Priory was established in 1230 or 1231 by an obscure order of monks from France, the Valliscaulians. They followed a strict form of monastic rule, with emphasis more on the ascetic religious life than on manual work. Houses were limited to no more than 20 brothers, and the monks’ livelihood depended on rents and teinds (tithes) from endowments. Their church, in common with all Valliscaulian houses, was dedicated to St Mary the Virgin and St John the Baptist.
The original priory was rebuilt in the 15th century, when the monks’ choir was extended and a new refectory (dining hall) constructed. Monastic life eventually came to an end with the Protestant Reformation of 1560. The buildings and endowments were appropriated by John Campbell, later bishop of the Isles, and have remained with the Clan Campbell ever since.
The priory was founded by Duncan MacDougall, Lord of Lorn and builder of Dunstaffnage Castle near Oban. At this time kings of Scotland and Norway were fighting for control of Argyll and the Inner Hebrides. Duncan may have invited the Valliscaulians to Ardchattan to ingratiate himself with the Scottish king, Alexander II. Alexander had recently established a monastery for this obscure order at Pluscarden, near Elgin. The Valliscaulians, whose mother house was in the Val des Choux in Burgundy, only ever set up daughter houses outside France in Germany and Scotland. The third Valliscaulian house in Scotland was Beauly, west of Inverness, founded by the Bisset family.
The priory was dominated by the MacDougalls throughout most of its existence. Indeed, by the end of the 15th century, the position of prior was monopolised by the family. But in 1506 the last MacDougall prior, Eugenius (Eogan), was deposed. The new prior, Duncan MacArthur, attempted in vain to revive the zeal of the founding brethren. In 1538 there were just six monks in residence, and by the Reformation in 1560 a mere three.
In 1602, Archibald Campbell, son of Bishop John Campbell, began the process of converting the old priory into a private house. While the church remained in use as the parish kirk until 1732, the monks’ cloister was converted into a house. The old refectory is still the family dining room.
Among the numerous fine grave markers and carved stones on display is the MacDougall Cross. Commissioned by Prior Eugenius MacDougall in 1500, it was carved by John Ó Brolchán, a stone-carver from Iona. It is one of the few examples of West Highland carving recording the sculptor’s name. The cross bears a crucifixion scene on one side and an image of the Virgin and Child on the other.References:
The St Sophia's Cathedral was built between 1045-1050 inside the Novgorod Kremlin (fortress). It is one of the earliest stone structures of northern Russia. Its height is 38 m. Originally it was taller, for during the past nine centuries the lower part of the building became concealed by the two-metre thick cultural layer. The cathedral was built by Prince Vladimir, the son of Yaroslav the Wise, and until the 1130s this principal church of the city also served as the sepulchre of Novgorodian princes. For the Novgorodians, St Sophia became synonymous with their town, the symbol of civic power and independence.
The five-domed church looks simpler but no less impressive than its prototype, the thirteen-domed St Sophia of Kiev. The cathedral exterior is striking in its majesty and epic splendour evoking the memories of Novgorod's glorious past and invincible might. In the 11th century it looked more imposing than now. Its facade represented a gigantic mosaic of huge, coarsely trimmed irregular slabs of flagstone and shell rock. In some places (particularly on the apses), the wall was covered with mortar, smoothly polished, drawn up to imitate courses of brick or of whitestone slabs, and slightly coloured. As a result, the facade was not white, as it is today, but multicoloured. The play of stone, decorative painting and the building materials of various texture enhanced the impression of austere simplicity and introduced a picturesque effect.
The two-storied galleries extend along the building's southern, western and northern sides, with a stair-tower constructed at the north-eastern corner. The cathedral has three entrances - the southern, western and northern, of which the western was the main one intended for ceremonial processions. A gate standing at the entrance is known as the Sigtuna Gate (mid-12th century); according to legend, it was brought from the Swedish town of Sigtuna in 1187. The second name of the gate derives from the town of Magdeburg, where it was made. The two leaves are decorated with biblical and evangelical scenes in cast bronze relief. In the lower left corner there are portraits of the craftsmen who created this superb specimen of medieval Western European bronze-work. An inscription in Latin gives their names, Riquin and Weissmut. The small central figure - judging from an inscription in Slavonic - is a representation of the Russian master craftsman Avraam, who assembled the gate.
There is yet another bronze gate in the cathedral, called the Korsun Gate. Made in the 11th century in Chersonesos, Byzantium, it leads from the southern gallery into the Nativity Side-Chapel. Legend has it that the gate was handed over to Novgorod as a gift of Prince Yaroslav the Wise (c. 978 - 1054).
The interior of the cathedral is as majestic as its exterior. It is divided by huge piers into five aisles, three of which end in altar apses. In the south-western corner, inside the tower, there is a wide spiral in relatively small, modest buildings of the 12th - 16th centuries.