The Jakopič Garden, named after the famous Slovenian Impressionist painter Rihard Jakopič, whose studio overlooked the garden, is the site of the remains of a terraced Roman house built in the 1st century AD as part of a larger building complex. In the times of the Roman Emona, the building, now referred to as House No. 15a, used to contain four apartments with a large shared atrium.
The remains of the house, which used to cover 500 square metres, include an original 1st century floor indicating the distribution of rooms, part of a nearby road, and a cloaca (sewer shaft), which still serves its original purpose. The building was raised three times, for the last time between the 4th and 5th centuries AD. On view at the Jakopič Garden is evidence of all the three upward extensions.
The north-facing main entrance to House No. 15 led to a hallway from which one corridor led to a room with a central heating furnace, kitchen and flush toilets, and another one to a winter parlour connected to a smaller room, both of which were paved and centrally heated. The Roman central heating system was based on the principle of heating uderfloor chambers from which hot air was flowing through earthen pipes installed into plastered walls. The building's main room, a summer parlour, was paved with a two-colour mosaic typical of the 4th and 5th centuries. The remains of the house bear witness of the high level of development of the culture of living in ancient Emona.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.