Krumperk Castle was probably built in the late 13th century by the noble family Rabensberg from Koprivnik. The predecessor of the current castle is first mentioned in 1338 as a possession of Herkules of Krumperk, of the noble house of Kreutberg. By the 15th century, it belonged to the house of Rusbach, which sold it to Engelhand Zellenperger in 1410 under the name Turn Chraw-perg. Valvasor notes that it had once been called either Thurn unter Kreutberg or Thurn zu Kreutberg, although there is confusion as to which of these names referred to Krumperk Castle and which to the ruin of Koprivnik (Rabensberg) Castle near Moravče.
At the end of the 16th century, the male Zellenperger line became extinct, and the castle passed by inheritance accord to the older branch of the house of Rauber, one of the most prominent noble families in 15th and 16th century Carniola, who were later elevated to barons. The best-known member of the family was Adam von Rauber, who participated in the Battle of Sisak. At its height, the Krumperk lordship contained the settlements of Dob, Ihan, Krtina, Brezovica, and Studenec.
The Raubers replaced the old castle with the current building in 1580. Their line eventually became extinct; the daughter of the last Baron Rauber was the mother of the historian Johann Weikhard von Valvasor. The next owners, in 1631, were the Rasp family, followed by the counts Thurn-Valsassina, then in 1840 the barons Rechbach, who in 1928 moved to Austria after selling the estate to its final private owner, Stanka Pogačnik, a landowner from Ruše near Maribor.
After World War II, the castle was nationalized and stripped of its furnishings. The communist authorities converted the structure into a sanatorium for wounded military officers; in 1953, it was given to the Municipality of Domžale, which subdivided it into apartment housing. In 1985, the Krumperk holdings were partitioned; the castle went to Agrokombinat and the estate was taken over by Biotechnical Faculty of the University of Ljubljana, which established an equestrian center.
Today, the castle is the subject of a denationalization proceeding and is in a fairly poor state of repair.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.