Krumperk Castle was probably built in the late 13th century by the noble family Rabensberg from Koprivnik. The predecessor of the current castle is first mentioned in 1338 as a possession of Herkules of Krumperk, of the noble house of Kreutberg. By the 15th century, it belonged to the house of Rusbach, which sold it to Engelhand Zellenperger in 1410 under the name Turn Chraw-perg. Valvasor notes that it had once been called either Thurn unter Kreutberg or Thurn zu Kreutberg, although there is confusion as to which of these names referred to Krumperk Castle and which to the ruin of Koprivnik (Rabensberg) Castle near Moravče.
At the end of the 16th century, the male Zellenperger line became extinct, and the castle passed by inheritance accord to the older branch of the house of Rauber, one of the most prominent noble families in 15th and 16th century Carniola, who were later elevated to barons. The best-known member of the family was Adam von Rauber, who participated in the Battle of Sisak. At its height, the Krumperk lordship contained the settlements of Dob, Ihan, Krtina, Brezovica, and Studenec.
The Raubers replaced the old castle with the current building in 1580. Their line eventually became extinct; the daughter of the last Baron Rauber was the mother of the historian Johann Weikhard von Valvasor. The next owners, in 1631, were the Rasp family, followed by the counts Thurn-Valsassina, then in 1840 the barons Rechbach, who in 1928 moved to Austria after selling the estate to its final private owner, Stanka Pogačnik, a landowner from Ruše near Maribor.
After World War II, the castle was nationalized and stripped of its furnishings. The communist authorities converted the structure into a sanatorium for wounded military officers; in 1953, it was given to the Municipality of Domžale, which subdivided it into apartment housing. In 1985, the Krumperk holdings were partitioned; the castle went to Agrokombinat and the estate was taken over by Biotechnical Faculty of the University of Ljubljana, which established an equestrian center.
Today, the castle is the subject of a denationalization proceeding and is in a fairly poor state of repair.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.