For centuries the Archbishops of Salzburg resided at the Salzburg Residenz and used the palace to present and represent their political status. Today the Salzburg Residenz palace is a museum and one of the most impressive attractions in the city.
The earliest recorded reference to the bishop's palace was in a document dated 1232. Construction began under Archbishop Konrad I. In the 16th century, several changes and additions to the structure were made. The bishop's palace took on its present appearance under the auspices of Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (1587–1612). In the early 17th century, work began on the south wing, which included the addition of the large staircase and the Carabinieri-Saal, a section that connected the palace to the Franziskanerkirche and a large courtyard.
The successors of Wolf Dietrich continued to expand and refine the palace through to the end of the 18th century. Throughout the centuries, the palace served as the archbishops' residence, as well as a place of public gatherings and state affairs, all taking place in a setting that reflected power and grandeur.
Today, the Salzburg Residenz houses the Residenzgalerie, which presents paintings from the 16th to the 18th century, and Austrian paintings from the 19th century.References:
The Externsteine (Extern stones) is a distinctive sandstone rock formation located in the Teutoburg Forest, near the town of Horn-Bad Meinberg. The formation is a tor consisting of several tall, narrow columns of rock which rise abruptly from the surrounding wooded hills. Archaeological excavations have yielded some Upper Paleolithic stone tools dating to about 10,700 BC from 9,600 BC.
In a popular tradition going back to an idea proposed to Hermann Hamelmann in 1564, the Externsteine are identified as a sacred site of the pagan Saxons, and the location of the Irminsul (sacral pillar-like object in German paganism) idol reportedly destroyed by Charlemagne; there is however no archaeological evidence that would confirm the site's use during the relevant period.
The stones were used as the site of a hermitage in the Middle Ages, and by at least the high medieval period were the site of a Christian chapel. The Externsteine relief is a medieval depiction of the Descent from the Cross. It remains controversial whether the site was already used for Christian worship in the 8th to early 10th centuries.
The Externsteine gained prominence when Völkisch and nationalistic scholars took an interest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This interest peaked under the Nazi regime, when the Externsteine became a focus of nazi propaganda. Today, they remain a popular tourist destination and also continue to attract Neo-Pagans and Neo-Nazis.