For centuries the Archbishops of Salzburg resided at the Salzburg Residenz and used the palace to present and represent their political status. Today the Salzburg Residenz palace is a museum and one of the most impressive attractions in the city.
The earliest recorded reference to the bishop's palace was in a document dated 1232. Construction began under Archbishop Konrad I. In the 16th century, several changes and additions to the structure were made. The bishop's palace took on its present appearance under the auspices of Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (1587–1612). In the early 17th century, work began on the south wing, which included the addition of the large staircase and the Carabinieri-Saal, a section that connected the palace to the Franziskanerkirche and a large courtyard.
The successors of Wolf Dietrich continued to expand and refine the palace through to the end of the 18th century. Throughout the centuries, the palace served as the archbishops' residence, as well as a place of public gatherings and state affairs, all taking place in a setting that reflected power and grandeur.
Today, the Salzburg Residenz houses the Residenzgalerie, which presents paintings from the 16th to the 18th century, and Austrian paintings from the 19th century.References:
Medvedgrad is a medieval fortified town located on the south slopes of Medvednica mountain, approximately halfway from the Croatian capital Zagreb to the mountain top Sljeme. For defensive purposes it was built on a hill, Mali Plazur, that is a spur of the main ridge of the mountain that overlooks the city. On a clear day the castle can be seen from far away, especially the high main tower. Below the main tower of the castle is Oltar Domovine (Altar of the homeland) which is dedicated to Croatian soldiers killed in the Croatian War of Independence.
In 1242, Mongols invaded Zagreb. The city was destroyed and burned to the ground. This prompted the building of Medvedgrad. Encouraged by Pope Innocent IV, Philip Türje, bishop of Zagreb, built the fortress between 1249 and 1254. It was later owned by bans of Slavonia. Notable Croatian and Hungarian poet and ban of Slavonia Janus Pannonius (Ivan Česmički) died in the Medvedgrad castle on March 27, 1472.
The last Medvedgrad owners and inhabitants was the Gregorijanec family, who gained possession of Medvedgrad in 1562. In 1574, the walls of Medvedgrad were reinforced, but after the 1590 Neulengbach earthquake, the fortress was heavily damaged and ultimately abandoned. It remained in ruins until the late 20th century, when it was partly restored and now offers a panoramic view of the city from an altitude of over 500 meters.