Hohenwang castle dates back to the 12th century and was one of the most important medieval fortifications that time. It is exceptional long structure and one the largest castles in Styria. It consists of the stronghold and two outworks, which are separated by trenches. Their massive decline began in the late 18th century, after it was severely damaged by an earthquake. During World War II more parts of the ruins were destroyed by bombing.
Hohenwang served as a local administrative center, the protection of the population in times of crisis, the case-colonization and the associated spread of Christianity in the upper Muerztal. From the 13th century a priest resided at the castle.
Hohenwang is an elongated complex with stronghold, a deeper front castle with gatehouses and a curtain wall. It is oriented from southwest to northeast and extends over a total length of 90 meters. A donjon was not available. From the 13th to the 17th century, the romanesque core eastward to the Palas, a gallery, a kennel, a bastion and a representative gatehouse was enlarged. In a 15th-century chronicle exists a more detailed description of the interior of the castle, in the place, inter alia, of the chapel, a servants' room, some room, a large hall, four cellar, four cereal boxes, a bath-room, a kitchen and vaulted stables for twelve horses is talk. The three well-secured gates, two of which provided with a slip gate, the attachment to the ditch and finally the south, west and north, very steep cliffs made a storming of the fortress to a difficult task. In addition to the engraving by Georg Matthäus Vischer, the castle is also shown on a proclamation image that had given Ulrich Christoph von Scherffenberg in 1631 in order.References:
Les Invalides is a complex of buildings containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building"s original purpose. The buildings house the Musée de l"Armée, the military museum of the Army of France, the Musée des Plans-Reliefs, and the Musée d"Histoire Contemporaine, as well as the burial site for some of France"s war heroes, notably Napoleon Bonaparte.
Louis XIV initiated the project in 1670, as a home and hospital for aged and unwell soldiers: the name is a shortened form of hôpital des invalides. The architect of Les Invalides was Libéral Bruant. The enlarged project was completed in 1676, the river front measured 196 metres and the complex had fifteen courtyards. Jules Hardouin Mansart assisted the aged Bruant, and the chapel was finished in 1679 to Bruant"s designs after the elder architect"s death.
Shortly after the veterans" chapel was completed, Louis XIV commissioned Mansart to construct a separate private royal chapel referred to as the Église du Dôme from its most striking feature. Inspired by St. Peter"s Basilica in Rome, the original for all Baroque domes, it is one of the triumphs of French Baroque architecture. The domed chapel is centrally placed to dominate the court of honour. It was finished in 1708.
Because of its location and significance, the Invalides served as the scene for several key events in French history. On 14 July 1789 it was stormed by Parisian rioters who seized the cannons and muskets stored in its cellars to use against the Bastille later the same day. Napoleon was entombed under the dome of the Invalides with great ceremony in 1840. In December 1894 the degradation of Captain Alfred Dreyfus was held before the main building, while his subsequent rehabilitation ceremony took place in a courtyard of the complex in 1906.
The building retained its primary function of a retirement home and hospital for military veterans until the early twentieth century. In 1872 the musée d"artillerie (Artillery Museum) was located within the building to be joined by the Historical Museum of the Armies in 1896. The two institutions were merged to form the present musée de l"armée in 1905. At the same time the veterans in residence were dispersed to smaller centres outside Paris. The reason was that the adoption of a mainly conscript army, after 1872, meant a substantial reduction in the numbers of veterans having the twenty or more years of military service formerly required to enter the Hôpital des Invalides. The building accordingly became too large for its original purpose. The modern complex does however still include the facilities detailed below for about a hundred elderly or incapacitated former soldiers.