Albrechtsberg Palace is a Neoclassical stately home above the Elbe river in the Loschwitz district of Dresden. It was erected in 1854 according to plans designed by the Prussian court and landscaping architect Adolf Lohse (1807–1867) at the behest of Prince Albert, younger brother of the Prussian king Frederick William IV.
After Prince Albert and his wife Rosalie had died, their younger son Count Frederick of Hohenau (1857–1914) lived in the castle until his death, whereafter his elder brother Wilhelm (1854–1930) took over the residence. In 1925 Wilhelm finally had to sell the castle and the territory because of gambling debts. The new owner was the City of Dresden. After 1930, the gardens were opened for the public and redesigned as a recreational area for the citizens of Dresden under Mayor Wilhelm Külz.
During World War II the premises were used by the SA, whilst from 1943 the castle was used as a children’s home. All the three Elbe castles were spared from the bombing of Dresden, however occupied by the Red Army, with depredations and damages as the consequences. In 1948 the City of Dresden had to sell the castle to the Foreign Economic Trade Ministry of the Soviet Union. The castle was renovated by the architect Koeckritz. After the redecoration the castle was opened as a hotel called Intourist. In 1951, the East German Jugendheim GmbH Berlin repurchased the castle, and since 1952 the City of Dresden is once again the owner. The building was used as a Pioneers Palace.
Today, the Albrechtsberg castle is used as a private hotel and catering school.
Adolf Lohse designed the castle in a late Neoclassical style that was very characteristic for the mid 19th century. During the interior completion just the most high class materials were used, for example marble, the most kingly wood and the white sandstone from Saxony. Deciding for the composition was the style of the classicism. For this style, especially important is the Grecian and Roman antiquity; the Italian Renaissance and its traditionally application. The guide for the composition of the castle was the Ville d'Este close to Rome.
For the creation of the park, the Prussia garden architect Eduard Neide 1818-1883 was engaged. However, the court gardener Hermann Sigismund Neumann carried them out. Under the management of the court gardener, four landscapes were created. Those were crossed by curved alleys that are go over bridges and a viaduct. These alleys passe applied ponds, rocks and a waterfall.References:
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.