Albrechtsberg Palace is a Neoclassical stately home above the Elbe river in the Loschwitz district of Dresden. It was erected in 1854 according to plans designed by the Prussian court and landscaping architect Adolf Lohse (1807–1867) at the behest of Prince Albert, younger brother of the Prussian king Frederick William IV.
After Prince Albert and his wife Rosalie had died, their younger son Count Frederick of Hohenau (1857–1914) lived in the castle until his death, whereafter his elder brother Wilhelm (1854–1930) took over the residence. In 1925 Wilhelm finally had to sell the castle and the territory because of gambling debts. The new owner was the City of Dresden. After 1930, the gardens were opened for the public and redesigned as a recreational area for the citizens of Dresden under Mayor Wilhelm Külz.
During World War II the premises were used by the SA, whilst from 1943 the castle was used as a children’s home. All the three Elbe castles were spared from the bombing of Dresden, however occupied by the Red Army, with depredations and damages as the consequences. In 1948 the City of Dresden had to sell the castle to the Foreign Economic Trade Ministry of the Soviet Union. The castle was renovated by the architect Koeckritz. After the redecoration the castle was opened as a hotel called Intourist. In 1951, the East German Jugendheim GmbH Berlin repurchased the castle, and since 1952 the City of Dresden is once again the owner. The building was used as a Pioneers Palace.
Today, the Albrechtsberg castle is used as a private hotel and catering school.
Adolf Lohse designed the castle in a late Neoclassical style that was very characteristic for the mid 19th century. During the interior completion just the most high class materials were used, for example marble, the most kingly wood and the white sandstone from Saxony. Deciding for the composition was the style of the classicism. For this style, especially important is the Grecian and Roman antiquity; the Italian Renaissance and its traditionally application. The guide for the composition of the castle was the Ville d'Este close to Rome.
For the creation of the park, the Prussia garden architect Eduard Neide 1818-1883 was engaged. However, the court gardener Hermann Sigismund Neumann carried them out. Under the management of the court gardener, four landscapes were created. Those were crossed by curved alleys that are go over bridges and a viaduct. These alleys passe applied ponds, rocks and a waterfall.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.