Santi Apostoli is a Baroque-style church in Naples. Legend holds that a church at the site was built atop a Temple of Mercury by Emperor Constantine. Restored by the Caracciolo Family, it was ceded in 1570 to the Theatine Order. By 1590, the adjacent cloister and monastery was designed by Francesco Grimaldi. In the early 17th century was reconstructed by Giacomo Conforti. In 1638, the work was continued by Bartolomeo Picchiatti. In the 19th century, the Theatine order was suppressed and the church turned over in administrations. An earthquake damaged the dome. The church now belongs to the Liceo Artistico Statale di Napoli.
The counter-facade and ceiling panels were frescoed by Giovanni Lanfranco in the 1640s. The panels contain the following depictions: a Martyrdom of Apostles Simone e Giuda; a Martyrdom of St Thomas Apostle; a Martyrdom of St Bartholomew; a Martyrdom of St Matthew; a Martyrdom of St John Evangelist; a Glory of the Apostles, Virtue, Prophets, Patriarchs, and finally the four Evangelists on the pendentives of the dome.
The cupola has a large fresco depicting Paradise (1684) by Giovanni Battista Benasca, who also painted the frescoes in the chapel of St Michael. This chapel has a painting by Marco da Siena The lunnettes in this chapel were painted by Giordano and Solimena. Over the main door is a painting of the Healing Pool by Viviani. The main altar was designed by Fuga. In the choir are five canvases by Solimena. The altar in the Filomarina Chapel at the right of the main altar, was designed (1647) by Borromini. The chapel has mosaics made by Giovanni Battista Calandra and copied from paintings by Reni. The relief on the altar of the four evangelist symbols is by François Duquesnoy, and two marble lions are by Giuliano Finelli. The sacristy was built in 1626 using designs of Ferdinando Sanfelice. The crypt was frescoed by Belisario Corenzio.References:
The Broch of Gurness is an Iron Age broch village. Settlement here began sometime between 500 and 200 BC. At the centre of the settlement is a stone tower or broch, which once probably reached a height of around 10 metres. Its interior is divided into sections by upright slabs. The tower features two skins of drystone walls, with stone-floored galleries in between. These are accessed by steps. Stone ledges suggest that there was once an upper storey with a timber floor. The roof would have been thatched, surrounded by a wall walk linked by stairs to the ground floor. The broch features two hearths and a subterranean stone cistern with steps leading down into it. It is thought to have some religious significance, relating to an Iron Age cult of the underground.
The remains of the central tower are up to 3.6 metres high, and the stone walls are up to 4.1 metres thick. The tower was likely inhabited by the principal family or clan of the area but also served as a last resort for the village in case of an attack.
The broch continued to be inhabited while it began to collapse and the original structures were altered. The cistern was filled in and the interior was repartitioned. The ruin visible today reflects this secondary phase of the broch's use.
The site is surrounded by three ditches cut out of the rock with stone ramparts, encircling an area of around 45 metres diameter. The remains of numerous small stone dwellings with small yards and sheds can be found between the inner ditch and the tower. These were built after the tower, but were a part of the settlement's initial conception. A 'main street' connects the outer entrance to the broch. The settlement is the best-preserved of all broch villages.
Pieces of a Roman amphora dating to before 60 AD were found here, lending weight to the record that a 'King of Orkney' submitted to Emperor Claudius at Colchester in 43 AD.
At some point after 100 AD the broch was abandoned and the ditches filled in. It is thought that settlement at the broch continued into the 5th century AD, the period known as Pictish times. By that time the broch was not used anymore and some of its stones were reused to build smaller dwellings on top of the earlier buildings. Until about the 8th century, the site was just a single farmstead.
In the 9th century, a Norse woman was buried at the site in a stone-lined grave with two bronze brooches and a sickle and knife made from iron. Other finds suggest that Norse men were buried here too.