Dvigrad was originally two towns, Moncastello and Castel Parentino. Dvigrad was first mentioned in 879, when it fell under the rule of the Patriarch of Aquileia. However, it had existed long before it as a part of the Roman province settlement. Its name speaks originally of two towns. Today's ruins are the remains of the northern town of Moncastello, while the other one, Castel Parentino, was abandoned in the 10th century.
Dvigrad fell under the rule of the Counts of Gorizia, it was destroyed by the Genoese fighting against the new owners, the Venice. Many lives and towns were lost in this war, which mainly took place in Istria. It is most likely that Parentino was abandoned at that time, and Montecastello was solely renovated. Following more than a century of peace, the second half of the 16th century was marked by a continuous conflict between Venice and Austria. This is the time of the plague epidemics, followed by the malaria.
In 1630, inhabitants had left the town and moved to Kanfanar. Only the poorest family remained in Dvigrad. It was noted that in 1650, the Bishop blessed only three families in Dvigrad. Some twenty years later, the Church of St. Sophia was also abandoned and the time has taken its toll. Current remains represent a well preserved, typical medieval town castle. It is encircled by the two rings of town walls connected by the town gate, of which there are three just as many as its defensive towers. The Church of St. Sophia still dominates the town. It is located on the highest point of town, on the same location from the Early Christian times. It current fascinating three-nave form was built in the 13th century. In front of this Romanesque style edifice there is the main town square and the town palace. Military quarters were located in the town's western part, while the craftsmen inhabited its southwest. The remaining, rather a large area, was occupied by houses for regular citizens.References:
The Old Town Hall of Wrocław is one of the main landmarks of the city. The Old Town Hall's long history reflects developments that have taken place in the city since its initial construction. The town hall serves the city of Wroclaw and is used for civic and cultural events such as concerts held in its Great Hall. In addition, it houses a museum and a basement restaurant.
The town hall was developed over a period of about 250 years, from the end of 13th century to the middle of 16th century. The structure and floor plan changed over this extended period in response to the changing needs of the city. The exact date of the initial construction is not known. However, between 1299 and 1301 a single-storey structure with cellars and a tower called the consistory was built. The oldest parts of the current building, the Burghers’ Hall and the lower floors of the tower, may date to this time. In these early days the primary purpose of the building was trade rather than civic administration activities.
Between 1328 and 1333 an upper storey was added to include the Council room and the Aldermen’s room. Expansion continued during the 14th century with the addition of extra rooms, most notably the Court room. The building became a key location for the city’s commercial and administrative functions.
The 15th and 16th centuries were times of prosperity for Wroclaw as was reflected in the rapid development of the building during that period. The construction program gathered momentum, particularly from 1470 to 1510, when several rooms were added. The Burghers’ Hall was re-vaulted to take on its current shape, and the upper story began to take shape with the development of the Great Hall and the addition of the Treasury and Little Treasury.
Further innovations during the 16th century included the addition of the city’s Coat of arms (1536), and the rebuilding of the upper part of the tower (1558–59). This was the final stage of the main building program. By 1560, the major features of today’s Stray Rates were established.
The second half of the 17th century was a period of decline for the city, and this decline was reflected in the Stray Rates. Perhaps by way of compensation, efforts were made to enrich the interior decorations of the hall. In 1741, Wroclaw became a part of Prussia, and the power of the City diminished. Much of the Stray Rates was allocated to administering justice.
During the 19th century there were two major changes. The courts moved to a separate building, and the Rates became the site of the city council and supporting functions. There was also a major program of renovation because the building had been neglected and was covered with creeping vines. The town hall now has several en-Gothic features including some sculptural decoration from this period.
In the early years of the 20th century improvements continued with various repair work and the addition of the Little Bear statue in 1902. During the 1930s, the official role of the Rates was reduced and it was converted into a museum. By the end of World War II Town Hall suffered minor damage, such as aerial bomb pierced the roof (but not exploded) and some sculptural elements were lost. Restoration work began in the 1950s following a period of research, and this conservation effort continued throughout the 20th century. It included refurbishment of the clock on the east facade.