The old town and medieval castle of Kršan lies on the hill, while new town and village is along the road. The castle is first mentioned in 1274. It was abandoned until the 13th or early 14th century, when it was rebuilt byHeinrich III. Until 1374, when counts of Gorizia became extinct, it was in duality of governance, between the real masters Counts of Gorizia, and Aquileia church in which name the Counts ruled over the castle. When the counts extinct it wasn't returned to Aquleia patriarchs (the state Patria del Friuli), but was inherited by Habsburg family.
The Habsburg family gave it to their vassal Krotendorfer or Cherstlein family. Since then the castle is mentioned as Kršan (Kerschan). They kept it until 1631, with short interruptions when its lords were families Devinski (1388–99), Walsee (1399-1431) and Wolf (1431–36). Later as lords are mentioned de Fini, Auersperg, Rampelli, Benvenuti dell Argenti, Josip de Sussani (who found the Istrian Demarcation from 13th-14th century), then his nephew Franjo Scribani, then nobleman from Plomin Matija Tonetti, and as last Giovanni Tonetti.
From the medieval castle is well preserved the tower of quadrangular layout, while residential and defensive complex was renovated in new residential buildings. The town is entered on the east side of the completely preserved city gate, on the right hand the city defense wall leans a number of houses of which the first is the old municipal house. In the inner courtyard of the castle has been preserved foursquare frame of Gothic portal from the 15th century, and well throat with engraved year 1666. The two-nave parish church of St. Antun was built in the 17th century, and the most of the church furniture dates from the 18th century. At the cemetery is nave chapel of St. Jakov from the 15th century. On the floor of the church, paved with brick and stone, are gravestones of feudal lords from the 15th, 16th and 17th century, particularly the plate from 1415 of Juraj Kršanski in a Latin epitaph inscribed with Gothic letters.References:
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.