Santa Marina is one of the so-called 'Fernandinean Churches', edificated in the city after Ferdinand III of Castile conquered it from the Moors in the 13th century. The structure combines proto-Gothic, Mudéjar and, to a lesser degree, late-Romanesque elements.
The church, one of the oldest of the Fernandinean group, was built in the second half of the 13th century where previously a Moorish mosque and before that a 7th-century Visigothic church had existed. No trace of them remains today.
On 23 June 1880 the church suffered a fire, which required a restoration lasting two years. Other renovations were carried out in the 19th and 20th centuries, during which the medieval appearance of the building was restored, by removing the Baroque additions introduced after the damage from the 1680 and 1755 earthquakes.
The church has a rectangular, or basilica, plan, divided into a nave and two aisles, the nave being far higher than the latter. The aisles are separated from the nave by large pointed arches.
The facade is characterized by four large, asymmetrical buttresses, ending with pinnacles, and corresponding to the interior separation between nave and aisles. Also present are a main central rose window, smaller circular windows, and alfizes over the ogival arch of the main portal. The facade corresponding to the left aisle features a secondary portal, surmounted by a triangular arch.
The apses are polygonal. In the right aisle is the sacristy, built in the 15th century. The left aisle apse was adapted to house a Baroque chapel from 1630. The bell tower dates to the 16th century.
The 'retablo' of the Main Chapel houses paintings by Antonio del Castillo and sculptures from the local artist Gómez de Sandoval.References:
The Castle of Gruyères is one of the most famous in Switzerland. It was built between 1270 and 1282, following the typical square plan of the fortifications in Savoy. It was the property of the Counts of Gruyères until the bankruptcy of the Count Michel in 1554. His creditors the cantons of Fribourg and Bern shared his earldom. From 1555 to 1798 the castle became residence to the bailiffs and then to the prefects sent by Fribourg.
In 1849 the castle was sold to the Bovy and Balland families, who used the castle as their summer residency and restored it. The castle was then bought back by the canton of Fribourg in 1938, made into a museum and opened to the public. Since 1993, a foundation ensures the conservation as well as the highlighting of the building and the art collection.
The castle is the home of three capes of the Order of the Golden Fleece. They were part of the war booty captured by the Swiss Confederates (which included troops from Gruyères) at the Battle of Morat against Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy in 1476. As Charles the Bold was celebrating the anniversary of his father's death, one of the capes is a black velvet sacerdotal vestment with Philip the Good's emblem sewn into it.
A collection of landscapes by 19th century artists Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Barthélemy Menn and others are on display in the castle.