Castles of the Teutonic Knights

Maasi Fortress Ruins

Maasi medieval fort-castle was built with the forced labour of islanders. That's how the ruling Liivi order punished indigenous inhabitants for the uprising, which had destroyed orders previous stronghold. Seaside fort-castle was undefeated until destroyed by Danes. The fortress was blown up in 1576 by the Danes in an attempt to forestall the Swedish invasion and nothing was done for the next 300 years. 8m walls that ...
Founded: 14th century | Location: Saaremaa, Estonia

Vecdole Castle Ruins

Vecdole Castle (Schloss Alt-Dahlen) was built in the early 13th century (before 1226 when it was first time mentioned). It was built as a vassal castle for the arcbishop of Riga and destroyed already in 1298. Today only ruins remain.
Founded: ca. 1226 | Location: Salaspils, Latvia

Tarvastu Castle Ruins

The place of the Tarvastu castle has been an ancient fortified stronghold. A medieval Order castle, surrounded by a moat, was built at the River Tarvastu, during the 14th century, and exploded in 1596. In the yard of the front stronghold, there is a light-coloured classicist chapel, founded in 1825, to be burial place of the v. Mensenkampff's family. The suspension bridge, which connected the hill of the front fort wi ...
Founded: 14th century | Location: Viljandimaa, Estonia

Vasknarva Castle Ruins

The first Vasknarva order castle (Neuschloss) was founded in 1349 on the northeastern border of Old Livonia. 1427–1442 a new castle (Vastne-Narva) was built, which became the centre of the vogtei of the Livonian Order. The castle was wracked in the Livonian War. Until the Great Northern War it was a fort of great importance, commanding the mouth of the Narva River. It has been known in Russian chronicles either as S ...
Founded: 1349 | Location: Ida-Virumaa, Estonia

Vilaka Castle Ruins

Viļaka Castle was built by Archbishopric of Riga in 1342 as a wooden castle. At first it was closed monastery. It was rebuilt as a stone castle between 1509-1516. During Livonian war time in 1582 it was destroyed and finally demolished in 1702. The outer walls are 1.6m thick, remaining fragments of the walls are up to 2 meters high.
Founded: 1342 | Location: Viļaka, Latvia

Virtsu Castle Ruins

The castle of Virtsu belonged to vassals of the feudal state Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek - Western part of nowadays Estonia as well as part of Saaremaa and part of Hiiumaa. It was built in 1430 by Uexküll noble family and destroyed already in 16th century. Now the ruined walls are few metres high, but it really looks that there is almost nothing. That's because grass and bush is growing on the ruins. Reference: ...
Founded: 1430 | Location: Hanila, Estonia

Labiau Castle Ruins

The earliest mention of Labiau dates back to 1258. At that time Labiau was most probably an old Baltic Prussian village or a small fortified settlement. The first timber fortress was built by the Teutonic Knights during the second Prussian surge, around the year 1274 (other sources suggest that the first stronghold was established in 1258). It stood at the mouth of the Laba River and protected this waterway. During the Pr ...
Founded: 1360 | Location: Polessk, Russia

Neuhausen Castle Ruins

The first reliable mention of Neuhausen dates back to 1292, when Bishop Christian von Mühlhausen ordered to raise a fortified castle in this location. Following the reformation of the Catholic Church in Prussia in 1525 the castle became a property of Albrecht Hohenzollern of Brandenburg. The Duke had the castle completely redesigned, converting it into a suburban hunters manor. In 1550, when the Duke had made a decis ...
Founded: 1292 | Location: Guryevsky, Russia

Kurzetnik Castle Ruins

Kurzętnik Castle was built by Teutonic Knights in the 14th century. The construction began around 1331 and was completed before 1361. The large castle was 110m long and 42m wide. The first floors were built of granite and upper were brick-made. There was a chapel church in the inner yard. The suffered damages in wars between Teutonic Order and Poland-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1410s and again in 1659 in Swedish army ...
Founded: 1330-1361 | Location: Kurzętnik, Poland

Dzierzgon Castle Ruins

The construction of the Teutonic Castle in Dzierzgoń began in 1248, as ordered by the national champion Heinrich von Wida. At its location there was chosen towering hill over the area, where previously was a fortified city of Prussia, to protect the settlement lying at its feet. The fort was the seat of the Commander of Dzierzgoń, who also held the function of the Quatermaster (Obersttrappier) in the Order of t ...
Founded: 1248 | Location: Dzierzgoń, Poland

Przezmark Castle Ruins

The construction of the Przezmark castle started at the beginning of the 1300s continued until c. 1350. In the next centuries the stronghold was repeatedly converted because it was adjusted to new functions: the seat of a commune head, a prosecuting attorney and a convent. Since the beginning of the 16th century the castle belonged to the bishops of Pomesania as to later come into hands of the families of von Egmon and vo ...
Founded: c. 1300 | Location: Przezmark, Poland

Stary Dzierzgon Castle Ruins

Stary Dzierzgoń was one of the first Teutonic fortresses in the territory of Prussia.The castle was built in 1234 on the site of a Prussian stronghold. It was devastated in 1243 and abandoned in 1247 when the Teutonic Order moved its seat to the brand new castle in nearby Dzierzgoń. The outline of the moat and the embankments are the only remains of the fortress.
Founded: 1234 | Location: Stary Dzierzgon, Poland

Czluchow Castle

Człuchów Castle consists of some of the defence walls and the 46-metre tower. The Człuchów stronghold was built during the 14th Century by the Teutonic Order. The exact date of completion is unknown but it is assumed to be the year 1365. During the history, the castle was considered an unconquerable fortress, and was an important element in the defence system of the monastic State. The glory days o ...
Founded: c. 1365 | Location: Czluchow, Poland

Zamek Kiszewski Castle Ruins

The first Teutonic castle in Zamek Kiszewski was surrounded by the Wierzyca and marshy grasslands. In 1454 the castle was destroyed by the armies of Gdańsk, and again in 1655 when it was taken over by the Swedes. The surviving remnants of the 14th century castle complex are its defensive walls with Teutonic keeps and a gatehouse. At the foot of the castle there is also a Neoclassical manor house, which dates back to ...
Founded: 1350 | Location: Zamek Kiszewski, Poland

Sobowidz Castle Ruins

Sobowidz Castle was built in the second half of 14th century by the Teutonic Order. During the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War it was conquered by Polish, but later returned to Teutonic Order. The castle was mainly destroyed in 1454 when Teutonic Knights surrended. In the 16th century the castle was rebuilt to Governor palace, but it was again destroyed by Swedish army in the 17th century and demolished in 19th ...
Founded: c. 1340 | Location: Sobowidz, Poland

Kowalewo Pomorskie Castle Ruins

In 1231 the city of Kowalewo was captured by the Teutonic Knights. They soon built a castle, and in 1275 they granted city rights to this developing settlement. After the complete destruction of the city and the castle by the Tatars in 1286, relocation took place, most probably under the conditions of the Chełmno Law. The castle was rebuilt in 1278. Invasions of the Prussians, Tatars, and Lithuanians hastened the dec ...
Founded: 13th century | Location: Kowalewo Pomorskie, Poland

Nowy Jasiniec Castle Ruins

In the Middle Ages Nowy Jasiniec castle served as a border stronghold on the trade route from Polish to Pomesania. It was conquered and rebuilt by the Teutonic Order in the 14h century. During the wars between Teutonic Order and Poland it was destroyed and then rebuilt again in 1454. Between 1466-1772 Nowy Jasiniec was the seat of local lords. Between 1773-1846 the castle served as an evangelical church. Later it fell int ...
Founded: 14th century | Location: Nowy Jasiniec, Poland

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Church of the Savior on Blood

The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood is one of the main sights of St. Petersburg. The church was built on the site where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated and was dedicated in his memory. Construction began in 1883 under Alexander III, as a memorial to his father, Alexander II. Work progressed slowly and was finally completed during the reign of Nicholas II in 1907. Funding was provided by the Imperial family with the support of many private donors.

Architecturally, the Cathedral differs from St. Petersburg's other structures. The city's architecture is predominantly Baroque and Neoclassical, but the Savior on Blood harks back to medieval Russian architecture in the spirit of romantic nationalism. It intentionally resembles the 17th-century Yaroslavl churches and the celebrated St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow.

The Church contains over 7500 square metres of mosaics — according to its restorers, more than any other church in the world. The interior was designed by some of the most celebrated Russian artists of the day — including Viktor Vasnetsov, Mikhail Nesterov and Mikhail Vrubel — but the church's chief architect, Alfred Alexandrovich Parland, was relatively little-known (born in St. Petersburg in 1842 in a Baltic-German Lutheran family). Perhaps not surprisingly, the Church's construction ran well over budget, having been estimated at 3.6 million roubles but ending up costing over 4.6 million. The walls and ceilings inside the Church are completely covered in intricately detailed mosaics — the main pictures being biblical scenes or figures — but with very fine patterned borders setting off each picture.

In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, the church was ransacked and looted, badly damaging its interior. The Soviet government closed the church in the early 1930s. During the Second World War when many people were starving due to the Siege of Leningrad by Nazi German military forces, the church was used as a temporary morgue for those who died in combat and from starvation and illness. The church suffered significant damage. After the war, it was used as a warehouse for vegetables, leading to the sardonic name of Saviour on Potatoes.

In July 1970, management of the Church passed to Saint Isaac's Cathedral (then used as a highly profitable museum) and proceeds from the Cathedral were funneled back into restoring the Church. It was reopened in August 1997, after 27 years of restoration, but has not been reconsecrated and does not function as a full-time place of worship; it is a Museum of Mosaics. Even before the Revolution it never functioned as a public place of worship; having been dedicated exclusively to the memory of the assassinated tsar, the only services were panikhidas (memorial services). The Church is now one of the main tourist attractions in St. Petersburg.