The 'Achillian' Baths are numbered amongst the principal public bathing establishments of Roman date which survive in Catania, alongside the Terme dell'Indirizzo and the Terme della Rotonda, and constitute a mysterious and highly suggestive place. They are located beneath the Piazza Duomo and may be reached through a narrow underground passage next to the principal façade of the Cathedral.
The name derives from a fragmentary Greek inscription on a slab of Carrara marble, found around the middle of the 18th century. The inscription, attributable to the middle of the 5th century AD, is currently on display in the Museo Civico of Castello Ursino in Catania.
The part of the building complex which can be visited today includes the main hall, know as “Hall of Piers”, off which opens a series of rooms, some of which are linked to it by a corridor along the south side. This, covered by a barrel-vault and about 18m long, leads to four rooms of uncertain purpose. The area has yielded numerous fragments of late Roman and mediaeval pottery, which demonstrate the continued use of the building.
The meagre stratigraphic data obtained from the various excavation campaigns, together with the analysis of structural details, have made it possible to date the first bath building to the 2nd century AD; while a second building phase, observable in the east wall of the main hall, must belong to the mid-5th century AD. The latter must have constituted an elongated rectangle in the first phase, while it was probably re-shaped in the second phase, reducing its size.
Following refurbishments in late antiquity, the main hall is now more-or-less square in outline (11 m from north to south and 11.90 m from east to west). The vaulted ceiling of the hall, whose extraordinary figurative decoration can still be admired, was covered with stucco protraying cupids, vine scrolls and bunches of grapes. Along its own sides is a conduit 0.70 m wide, linked to the channel system found in the long corridor which flanks the hall on the south. The paving of the hall was a fine work in opus sectile, composed of re-used slabs, of which the impressions remain in the mortar bedding. In the centre of the hall is a basin, originally veneered with marble, in the centre of which would have stood a small column. During the first phase, the height of the piers would have appeared greater than it does now, for in fact the present paving dates from a complex remodelling of the building which involved its raising up. As one passes along the corridor, there is on the left a room which has yielded the only remains of the heating system (a hypocaust with piers composed of cylindrical bricks). In this same room have been found the remains of a staircase, indicating the existence of an upper floor to the bath complex, which must have occupied more than one level.References:
Castle of Lorca (Castillo de Lorca) is a fortress of medieval origin constructed between the 9th and 15th centuries. It consists of a series of defensive structures that, during the Middle Ages, made the town and the fortress an impregnable point in the southeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Lorca Castle was a key strategic point of contention between Christians and Muslims during the Reconquista.
Archaeological excavations have revealed that the site of the castle has been inhabited since Neolithic times.
It has not been determined exactly when a castle or fortress was first built on the hill. The first written documentation referring to a castle at Lorca is of Muslim origin, which in the 9th century, indicates that the city of Lurqa was an important town in the area ruled by Theudimer (Tudmir). During Muslim rule, Lorca Castle was an impregnable fortress and its interior was divided into two sections by the Espaldón Wall. In the western part, there was an area used to protect livestock and grain in times of danger. The eastern part had a neighbourhood called the barrio de Alcalá.
Lorca was conquered by the Castilian Infante Don Alfonso, the future Alfonso X, in 1244, and the fortress became a key defensive point against the Kingdom of Granada. For 250 years, Lorca Castle was a watchpoint on the border between the Christian kingdom of Murcia and the Muslim state of Granada.
Alfonso X ordered the construction of the towers known as the Alfonsina and Espolón Towers, and strengthened and fixed the walls. Hardly a trace of the Muslim fortress remained due to this reconstruction. Muslim traces remain in the foundation stones and the wall known as the muro del Espaldón.
The Jewish Quarter was found within the alcazaba, the Moorish fortification, separated from the rest of the city by its walls. The physical separation had the purpose of protecting the Jewish people in the town from harm, but also had the result of keeping Christians and Jews separate, with the Christians inhabiting the lower part of town.
The remains of the Jewish Quarter extended over an area of 5,700 square m, and 12 homes and a synagogue have been found; the synagogue dates from the 14th century and is the only one found in the Murcia. The streets of the town had an irregular layout, adapted to the landscape, and is divided into four terraces. The synagogue was in the central location, and around it were the homes. The homes were of rectangular shape, with various compartmentalized rooms. The living quarters were elevated and a common feature was benches attached to the walls, kitchens, stand for earthenware jars, or cupboards.
With the disappearance of the frontier after the conquest of Granada in 1492, Lorca Castle no longer became as important as before. With the expulsion of the Jews by order of Ferdinand and Isabella, Lorca Castle was also depopulated as a result. The castle was abandoned completely, and was almost a complete ruin by the 18th century. In the 19th century, the castle was refurbished due to the War of Spanish Independence. The walls and structures were repaired or modified and its medieval look changed. A battery of cannons was installed, for example, during this time. In 1931 Lorca Castle was declared a National Historic Monument.
Currently, a parador (luxury hotel) has been built within the castle. As a result, archaeological discoveries have been found, including the Jewish Quarter.