Vyborg Old Cathedral is the oldest building in Vyborg, but today only some parts of its walls and the tower remain. The parish of Vyborg was established during the third crusade around the year 1293. There were several wooden churches the last one was destroyed by Novgorodians in 1411.
The construction of stone-made cathedral was began in 1430s and in was completed around 1445. The medieval appearance is unknown, because parts of the cathedral have been changed and demolished several times. The original nave was probably about 37m long and 20m wide. In addition to the main altar there were also few side altars. Unfortunately the interior is completely disappeared or destroyed in wars and reconstructions.
Some notable persons has been buried to the church like nobleman Erik Axelsson Tott and probably Mikael Agricola, the founder of written Finish language.
During the centuries the Vyborg cathedral was first Catholic, then Lutheran and during the Russian order also an Orthodox church. Peter the Great ordered to renovate it for Orthodox worships in 1720. In 1805 it was remodified as a magazine. In 1913 the cathedral was again restored and after the Independence of Finland it was moved once again Lutheran church. In the Winter War (1940) the aerial bomb hit the church and only walls survived.References:
Sirmione castle was built near the end of the 12th century as part of a defensive network surrounding Verona. The castle was maintained and extended first as part of the Veronese protection against their rivals in Milan and later under the control of the Venetian inland empire. The massive fortress is totally surrounded by water and has an inner porch which houses a Roman and Medieval lapidary. From the drawbridge, a staircase leads to the walkways above the walls, providing a marvellous view of the harbour that once sheltered the Scaliger fleet. The doors were fitted with a variety of locking systems, including a drawbridge for horses, carriages and pedestrians, a metal grate and, more recently, double hinged doors. Venice conquered Sirmione in 1405, immediately adopting provisions to render the fortress even more secure, fortifying its outer walls and widening the harbour.
Thanks to its strategical geographical location as a border outpost, Sirmione became a crucial defence and control garrison for the ruling nobles, retaining this function until the 16th century, when its role was taken up by Peschiera del Garda.