Vyborg Old Cathedral is the oldest building in Vyborg, but today only some parts of its walls and the tower remain. The parish of Vyborg was established during the third crusade around the year 1293. There were several wooden churches the last one was destroyed by Novgorodians in 1411.
The construction of stone-made cathedral was began in 1430s and in was completed around 1445. The medieval appearance is unknown, because parts of the cathedral have been changed and demolished several times. The original nave was probably about 37m long and 20m wide. In addition to the main altar there were also few side altars. Unfortunately the interior is completely disappeared or destroyed in wars and reconstructions.
Some notable persons has been buried to the church like nobleman Erik Axelsson Tott and probably Mikael Agricola, the founder of written Finish language.
During the centuries the Vyborg cathedral was first Catholic, then Lutheran and during the Russian order also an Orthodox church. Peter the Great ordered to renovate it for Orthodox worships in 1720. In 1805 it was remodified as a magazine. In 1913 the cathedral was again restored and after the Independence of Finland it was moved once again Lutheran church. In the Winter War (1940) the aerial bomb hit the church and only walls survived.References:
The Abbey of Saint-Etienne, also known as Abbaye aux Hommes ('Men"s Abbey'), is a former monastery dedicated to Saint Stephen (Saint Étienne). It is considered, along with the neighbouring Abbaye aux Dames ('Ladies" Abbey'), to be one of the most notable Romanesque buildings in Normandy. Like all the major abbeys in Normandy, it was Benedictine.
Lanfranc, before being an Archbishop of Canterbury, was abbot of Saint-Etienne. Built in Caen stone during the 11th century, the two semi-completed churches stood for many decades in competition. An important feature added to both churches in about 1120 was the ribbed vault, used for the first time in France. The two abbey churches are considered forerunners of the Gothic architecture. The original Romanesque apse was replaced in 1166 by an early Gothic chevet, complete with rosette windows and flying buttresses. Nine towers and spires were added in the 13th century. The interior vaulting shows a similar progression, beginning with early sexpartite vaulting (using circular ribs) in the nave and progressing to quadipartite vaults (using pointed ribs) in the sanctuary.
The two monasteries were finally donated by William the Conqueror and his wife, Matilda of Flanders, as penalty for their marriage against the Pope"s ruling. William was buried here; Matilda was buried in the Abbaye aux Dames. Unfortunately William"s original tombstone of black marble, the same kind as Matilda"s in the Abbaye aux Dames, was destroyed by the Calvinist iconoclasts in the 16th century and his bones scattered.
As a consequence of the Wars of Religion, the high lantern tower in the middle of the church collapsed and was never rebuilt. The Benedictine abbey was suppressed during the French Revolution and the abbey church became a parish church. From 1804 to 1961, the abbey buildings accommodated a prestigious high school, the Lycée Malherbe. During the Normandy Landings in 1944, inhabitants of Caen found refuge in the church; on the rooftop there was a red cross, made with blood on a sheet, to show that it was a hospital (to avoid bombings).