Börringekloster Castle, formerly Börringe Priory, is a castle built in 1763 on the ruins of a medieval Benedictine priory. The priory was founded about 1150 under Eskil, Archbishop of Lund, for Benedictine monks. However, by 1231 Börringe Priory is mentioned in Liber Census Daniae as a nunnery located on the island of Byrdingø in Börringe Lake, on land which Valdemar II of Denmark had once set aside for hunting. The church was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and the nunnery was later also known as St. Mary's Priory.
The building complex began small, but with the income from donations of money and rent properties, the priory was able to expand into three ranges attached to the church forming a four-sided enclosure to separate the nuns from the world. The nunnery was rebuilt over several decades during the 14th century in the Gothic style out of brick. Religious leadership and the internal running of the community was the responsibility of the prioress, while a prior, often a local noble who paid for the privilege, was responsible for representing the nuns in worldly affairs.
The kingdom of Denmark became Lutheran in 1536 under Christian III, a staunch Protestant. All religious houses and their attendant income properties reverted to the crown for disposition. Börringe Priory was secularized the same year and became an estate which the king gave to the Brahe family with the condition that the former nuns were to be cared for, essentially a home for honourable and noble women. The entire archive was lost. The church was converted to a parish church for the village of Börringe.
In 1551 the former priory estate passed to the nobleman Knud Gedde, and was apparently used as living quarters by tenant farmers. In 1582 it passed to Lady Görvel Sparre who ordered the conventual church demolished, and the materials to be used for the construction of a new parish church closer to the town, which was completed by 1587. The grave of Lady Else Brade from the former priory church was moved under the floor of the new parish church. Usable parts of the former conventual buildings were converted into a large manor house.
At the beginning of the 16th century, Börringe was owned by Søren Norby, who together with the knight Jens Holgersen Ulfstand of Glimmingehus Castle, led the Danish navy to victory in several battles against Lübeck.
When Scania became a Swedish province at the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, Charles X of Sweden gave Bŏrringe Priory Manor to his illegitimate son, Gustaf Carlsson. Charles XItook the property and made it available to the General Governor of Scania, Count Gustaf Otto Stenbock. In 1682, Charles XI exchanged the estate for Herrevad Abbey with Otto Wilhelm von Königsmarck, son of Hans Christoff von Königsmarck, but in 1686, the estate reverted to the crown again.
Börringe Parish was combined with Lemmeströ Parish in 1741. Both of the old churches were demolished and a new one constructed for the new joint Gustav Parish. The Börringe Priory estate was bought by the Beck-Friis family in 1745. In 1763, the remaining manor house and structures were demolished and replaced by the present castle. In 1873 the present castle was expanded and renovated into its present appearance. The estate became a joint County (earldom) with Fiholm Castle in Södermanland in 1791 and theSwedish nobility title of Count was awarded to the new owners.
There are no remnants of the former priory to be seen, except for a few fragments from the monastic church now in the Börringe burial ground.References:
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.