The city of Lund has a long history as a center for learning and was the ecclesiastical centre and seat of the archbishop of Denmark. A cathedral school for the training of clergy was established in 1085 and is today Scandinavia's oldest school. A studium generale (a medieval university education) was founded in 1425, although it was not until 1438 that education was started by the Franciscan order for a baccalaureus degree.
The curent main building of the Lund University was designed by architect Helgo Zettervall and inaugurated by King Oscar II in 1882. Construction began in 1874, when the old main building Kungshuset had become too small for the growing number of students.
The design is characterised by Helgo Zettervall's fascination with classical antiquity, and features columns and fancy copings. There were originally four sphinxes on the roof, but they had to be removed after some 30 years because of bad quality. In the 1990s four new sphinxes were located on the roof. Like many of Zettervall's buildings, it was criticized for a lack of uniformity and not being well thought out.References:
Craigmillar is one of Scotland’s most perfectly preserved castles. It began as a simple tower-house residence. Gradually, over time, it developed into a complex of structures and spaces, as subsequent owners attempted to improve its comfort and amenity. As a result, there are many nooks and crannies to explore.
The surrounding gardens and parkland were also important. The present-day Craigmillar Castle Park has fascinating reminders of the castle’s days as a rural retreat on the edge of Scotland’s capital city.
At the core lies the original, late-14th-century tower house, among the first of this form of castle built in Scotland. It stands 17m high to the battlements, has walls almost 3m thick, and holds a warren of rooms, including a fine great hall on the first floor.
‘Queen Mary’s Room’, also on the first floor, is where Mary is said to have slept when staying at Craigmillar. However, it is more likely she occupied a multi-roomed apartment elsewhere in the courtyard, probably in the east range.
Sir Simon Preston was a loyal supporter of Queen Mary, whom she appointed as Provost of Edinburgh. In this capacity, he was her host for her first night as a prisoner, at his townhouse in the High Street, on 15 June 1567. She was taken to Lochleven Castle the following day.
The west range was rebuilt after 1660 as a family residence for the Gilmour family.
The 15th-century courtyard wall is well preserved, complete with gunholes shaped like inverted keyholes. Ancillary buildings lie within it, including a private family chapel.