The city of Lund has a long history as a center for learning and was the ecclesiastical centre and seat of the archbishop of Denmark. A cathedral school for the training of clergy was established in 1085 and is today Scandinavia's oldest school. A studium generale (a medieval university education) was founded in 1425, although it was not until 1438 that education was started by the Franciscan order for a baccalaureus degree.
The curent main building of the Lund University was designed by architect Helgo Zettervall and inaugurated by King Oscar II in 1882. Construction began in 1874, when the old main building Kungshuset had become too small for the growing number of students.
The design is characterised by Helgo Zettervall's fascination with classical antiquity, and features columns and fancy copings. There were originally four sphinxes on the roof, but they had to be removed after some 30 years because of bad quality. In the 1990s four new sphinxes were located on the roof. Like many of Zettervall's buildings, it was criticized for a lack of uniformity and not being well thought out.References:
Sirmione castle was built near the end of the 12th century as part of a defensive network surrounding Verona. The castle was maintained and extended first as part of the Veronese protection against their rivals in Milan and later under the control of the Venetian inland empire. The massive fortress is totally surrounded by water and has an inner porch which houses a Roman and Medieval lapidary. From the drawbridge, a staircase leads to the walkways above the walls, providing a marvellous view of the harbour that once sheltered the Scaliger fleet. The doors were fitted with a variety of locking systems, including a drawbridge for horses, carriages and pedestrians, a metal grate and, more recently, double hinged doors. Venice conquered Sirmione in 1405, immediately adopting provisions to render the fortress even more secure, fortifying its outer walls and widening the harbour.
Thanks to its strategical geographical location as a border outpost, Sirmione became a crucial defence and control garrison for the ruling nobles, retaining this function until the 16th century, when its role was taken up by Peschiera del Garda.