Lund Cathedral was consecrated in 1145, and contains many well-known artefacts and features of considerable historical interest. Since then service has been held here every day for almost 900 years. Today over 700 000 persons visit the church each year with some 85 000 who attends a service.
The first cathedral was built in Lund before 1085, but it is difficult to know if the present building was built in the same place. The Cathedral School was established in 1085, making it Denmark's oldest school. The building of the present Cathedral began in 1080s. Its first Archbishop, Ascer, consecrated the high altar in the Crypt in 1123; and his successor, Archbishop Eskil, then consecrated the main cathedral building in 1145.
During the 16th century the Cathedral was restored by the West-phalian stone mason, Adam van Düren, and his sculptured figures can be seen in several parts of the building. In the 19th century the Cathedral was again thoroughly renovated, first by C.G. Brunius, and then by Helgo Zettervall. Further restoration work was undertaken in the period 1954-63 by Eiler Graebe.
Among the Cathedral’s many attractions, there is the magnificent horological artistic masterpiece, Horologium mirabili Lundense, dating from 1424. This early time and dating machine is still in working order with it rotating mechanical figures marking the passage of time. The Crypt is yet guarded by the figure of Giant Finn. There are also three rare bronze pillars with mounted statues from around 1240. The finely carved oak choir stalls are from the middle of the 14th century; and the majestic altar dates from 1398. On the other hand, the fine Absidens mosaic by Joakim Skovgaard, is from the 1920´s.References:
Les Invalides is a complex of buildings containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building"s original purpose. The buildings house the Musée de l"Armée, the military museum of the Army of France, the Musée des Plans-Reliefs, and the Musée d"Histoire Contemporaine, as well as the burial site for some of France"s war heroes, notably Napoleon Bonaparte.
Louis XIV initiated the project in 1670, as a home and hospital for aged and unwell soldiers: the name is a shortened form of hôpital des invalides. The architect of Les Invalides was Libéral Bruant. The enlarged project was completed in 1676, the river front measured 196 metres and the complex had fifteen courtyards. Jules Hardouin Mansart assisted the aged Bruant, and the chapel was finished in 1679 to Bruant"s designs after the elder architect"s death.
Shortly after the veterans" chapel was completed, Louis XIV commissioned Mansart to construct a separate private royal chapel referred to as the Église du Dôme from its most striking feature. Inspired by St. Peter"s Basilica in Rome, the original for all Baroque domes, it is one of the triumphs of French Baroque architecture. The domed chapel is centrally placed to dominate the court of honour. It was finished in 1708.
Because of its location and significance, the Invalides served as the scene for several key events in French history. On 14 July 1789 it was stormed by Parisian rioters who seized the cannons and muskets stored in its cellars to use against the Bastille later the same day. Napoleon was entombed under the dome of the Invalides with great ceremony in 1840. In December 1894 the degradation of Captain Alfred Dreyfus was held before the main building, while his subsequent rehabilitation ceremony took place in a courtyard of the complex in 1906.
The building retained its primary function of a retirement home and hospital for military veterans until the early twentieth century. In 1872 the musée d"artillerie (Artillery Museum) was located within the building to be joined by the Historical Museum of the Armies in 1896. The two institutions were merged to form the present musée de l"armée in 1905. At the same time the veterans in residence were dispersed to smaller centres outside Paris. The reason was that the adoption of a mainly conscript army, after 1872, meant a substantial reduction in the numbers of veterans having the twenty or more years of military service formerly required to enter the Hôpital des Invalides. The building accordingly became too large for its original purpose. The modern complex does however still include the facilities detailed below for about a hundred elderly or incapacitated former soldiers.