St Nicholas' Church

Gdańsk, Poland

The Dominican Church of St. Nicholas is one of the oldest churches in Gdansk. Its history begins in the 12th century. It was built at the junction of two important trade routes: the ancient mercantile path (via mercatorum) and the route leading from the royal castle of Gdansk’s estate in Pomerania.

On January 22, 1227, the Pomeranian prince Svatopluk entrusted the Church of St. Nicholas to the Dominicans, who had just arrived in the Polish territories. Immediately they began intensive pastoral activities both within the city and in neighboring Prussia. The church became the site of a thriving Dominican priory, which soon had a population of nearly two hundred brethren. After Gdansk passed under the dominion of the Teutonic Knights in 1308, Dominicans built a new church alongside the old one, which is preserved to this day.

The most dramatic period in the history of the church was the 16th century, the age of the Reformation. The church was repeatedly destroyed and plundered during the riots. The friars were expelled, and several of them lost their lives. In 1578 they returned to the priory and assumed the pastoral care of the Catholic population in the increasingly Protestant Gdansk.

Since that time, St. Nicholas became once again a celebrated church. Within the walls of the priory lived more and more friars, and the intellectual life and preaching of the brethren thrived. The church received new and significant appointments (the main altar, choir stalls, pulpit, organ). Visits by Polish kings on the occasion of their trips to Gdansk attest to the centrality and importance of St. Nicholas Church.

The end of the heyday of the monastery came with the Polish partitions (1772), and Napoleon wars. In 1813, as a result of Russian bombardment of the city, the priory was burned. Twenty years later, the Dominicans were forced to leave town, and eventually the ruined monastic buildings were demolished. The church was established as the Catholic parish of the city (one of four in what was then Danzig).

The year 1945 proved to be disastrous for Gdansk. The city was 90% destroyed and the people were expelled. All the churches downtown were reduced to rubble, except one. This sole survivor was in fact St. Nicholas.

In April 1945, the Dominicans returned to Gdansk (112 years after their departure in 1833). They had come mostly from Lviv, which had been abandoned by the Poles. They brought from there a medieval icon of Our Lady of Victory, the patroness of the city (today it is in the church).

References:

Comments

Your name



Details

Founded: 1348-90
Category: Religious sites in Poland

Rating

4.7/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Михаил Смирнов (2 years ago)
Невелика церква св. Миколая побудована на цьому місці вірогідно у 1185 році. У 1227 р. поморський князь Святополк передав церкву ордену домініканців, скоро тут з'явився монастир. Сучасний костел почали будувати у 1348 році. У 1487 р. побудовано зірчасте склепіння та підвищена вежа костелу. Під час реформації костел двічі був спустошений - у 1525 і 1576 роках, у 1564 р. монастир передали протестантам, а скарбницю забрали до ратуші. У 1567 р. король Сигізмунд II Август повернув монастир домініканцям. У 1813 р. росіяни бомбардували монастир і він повністю згорів, а у 1834 орден був розпущений, монастирські будови були остаточно зруйновані, а при костелі виникла католицька парафія, одна з 4 у тодішньому Гданьську. Цей костел - одна з небагатьох споруд, що вціліли під час 2 світової війни. Існує 2 версії щодо цього: 1) нібито радянські вояки дуже поважали св. Миколая (?!?!11177) тому не зруйнували костел, і 2) нібито настоятель підкупив червоних бісів запасами алкоголю з підвалів костелу. Очевидно, що обидві версії цілком неспроможні, поляки такі фантазери, очевидно, що костел просто випадково вцілів під час навали тих відморожених звірів.
Adam Gosiewski (3 years ago)
The only church to survive the war untouched. And what a treasure! Cool, austere gothic architecture from the outside. An eruption of black, gold and oak in its amazing baroque interior. Boasts one of the finest organs in Poland - an authentic, baroque organ. Home to white-cloaked Domincan monks. Full of atmosphere. Added benefit - the latest church-service every Sunday in Gdansk at 21.00hrs - known as the last-chance-mass. Also home to some splendid concerts and music festivals. A must! Sadly, this church is currently not open to the public due to large cracks appearing in the vaulted ceiling. Widely seen as a direct reaction to the reckless development of large shopping malls with deep underground sublevels and the diversion of underground rivers and streams. Hopefully St Nicholas's can be saved.
Michał Bartylak (3 years ago)
Ze względu na liczne pęknięcia sklepienia, filaru i posadzki świątyni grozi katastrofa budowlana przez co będzie ona nieczynna do odwołania.
issa malki (3 years ago)
Amazing
T.N (3 years ago)
The interior of St-Nicolas church in the old town of Gdańsk.
Powered by Google

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Luxembourg Palace

The famous Italian Medici family have given two queens to France: Catherine, the spouse of Henry II, and Marie, widow of Henry IV, who built the current Luxembourg palace. Maria di Medici had never been happy at the Louvre, still semi-medieval, where the fickle king, did not hesitate to receive his mistresses. The death of Henry IV, assassinated in 1610, left the way open for Marie's project. When she became regent, she was able to give special attention to the construction of an imposing modern residence that would be reminiscent of the Palazzo Pitti and the Boboli Gardens in Florence, where she grew up. The development of the 25-hectare park, which was to serve as a jewel-case for the palace, began immediately.

The architect, Salomon de Brosse, began the work in 1615. Only 16 years later was the palace was completed. Palace of Luxembourg affords a transition between the Renaissance and the Classical period.

In 1750, the Director of the King's Buildings installed in the wing the first public art-gallery in France, in which French and foreign canvases of the royal collections are shown. The Count of Provence and future Louis XVIII, who was living in Petit Luxembourg, had this gallery closed in 1780: leaving to emigrate, he fled from the palace in June 1791.

During the French Revolution the palace was first abandoned and then moved as a national prison. After that it was the seat of the French Directory, and in 1799, the home of the Sénat conservateur and the first residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of the French Republic. The old apartments of Maria di Medici were altered. The floor, which the 80 senators only occupied in 1804, was built in the middle of the present Conference Hall.

Beginning in 1835 the architect Alphonse de Gisors added a new garden wing parallel to the old corps de logis, replicating the look of the original 17th-century facade so precisely that it is difficult to distinguish at first glance the old from the new. The new senate chamber was located in what would have been the courtyard area in-between.

The new wing included a library (bibliothèque) with a cycle of paintings (1845–1847) by Eugène Delacroix. In the 1850s, at the request of Emperor Napoleon III, Gisors created the highly decorated Salle des Conférences, which influenced the nature of subsequent official interiors of the Second Empire, including those of the Palais Garnier.

During the German occupation of Paris (1940–1944), Hermann Göring took over the palace as the headquarters of the Luftwaffe in France, taking for himself a sumptuous suite of rooms to accommodate his visits to the French capital. Since 1958 the Luxembourg palace has been the seat of the French Senate of the Fifth Republic.